1 Available, 820 Aired
Last Aired S44E13 on Feb 22, 2017
1 episodes available of 820 aired
6.3 (28 Ratings)
60 Min

PBS' premier science series helps viewers of all ages explore the science behind the headlines. Along the way, NOVA demystifies science and technology, and highlights the people involved in scientific pursuits.

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Show Keywords: documentary, nature, science
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All NOVA (1974) Episodes

NOVA Seasons

  1. Watch NOVA Season 44 S44
    1 of 8 Ep. Available 2016
  2. 0 of 22 Ep. Available 2015
  3. 0 of 22 Ep. Available 2014
  4. 0 of 22 Ep. Available 2013
  5. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 2012
  6. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 2011
  7. 0 of 18 Ep. Available 2010
  8. 0 of 18 Ep. Available 2009
  9. 0 of 17 Ep. Available 2008
  10. 0 of 17 Ep. Available 2007
  11. 0 of 15 Ep. Available 2006
  12. 0 of 16 Ep. Available 2005
  13. 0 of 15 Ep. Available 2004
  14. 0 of 18 Ep. Available 2003
  15. 0 of 16 Ep. Available 2002
  16. 0 of 16 Ep. Available 2001
  17. 0 of 17 Ep. Available 2000
  18. 0 of 21 Ep. Available 1999
  19. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 1998
  20. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 1997
  21. 0 of 21 Ep. Available 1996
  22. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 1995
  23. 0 of 13 Ep. Available 1995
  24. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1994
  25. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1993
  26. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1992
  27. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 1991
  28. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1990
  29. 0 of 31 Ep. Available 1988
  30. 0 of 11 Ep. Available 1988
  31. 0 of 21 Ep. Available 1987
  32. 0 of 21 Ep. Available 1986
  33. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1985
  34. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1984
  35. 0 of 21 Ep. Available 1983
  36. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 1982
  37. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1981
  38. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1980
  39. 0 of 19 Ep. Available 1979
  40. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1978
  41. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1977
  42. 0 of 20 Ep. Available 1976
  43. 0 of 17 Ep. Available 1974
  44. 0 of 13 Ep. Available 1974

NOVA Episodes

  1. 13 Watch NOVA S44E13 online - Why Trains Crash
    Not Available Aired on Feb 22, 2017
  2. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 16, 2016
  3. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 2016
  4. 5
    Available Aired on Nov 02, 2016
  5. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 12, 2016
  6. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 05, 2016
  7. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 14, 2016
  8. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 07, 2016
  1. 22
    Not Available Aired on May 11, 2016
  2. 21
    Not Available Aired on May 04, 2016
  3. 20
    Not Available Aired on Apr 20, 2016
  4. 19
    Not Available Aired on Apr 13, 2016
  5. 18
    Not Available Aired on Apr 06, 2016
  6. 17
    Not Available Aired on Feb 24, 2016
  7. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 17, 2016
  8. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 10, 2016
  9. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 03, 2016
  10. 13
    Not Available Aired on Jan 27, 2016
  11. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 20, 2016
  12. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 13, 2016
  13. 10
    Not Available Aired on Dec 30, 2015
  14. 9
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 2015
  15. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 2015
  16. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 11, 2015
  17. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 04, 2015
  18. 5
    Not Available Aired on Oct 28, 2015
  19. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 14, 2015
  20. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 07, 2015
  21. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 23, 2015
  22. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 16, 2015
  1. 22
    Not Available Aired on Jul 29, 2015
  2. 21
    Not Available Aired on Jul 15, 2015
  3. 20
    Not Available Aired on May 13, 2015
  4. 19
    Not Available Aired on May 06, 2015
  5. 18
    Not Available Aired on Apr 22, 2015
  6. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 15, 2015
  7. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 25, 2015
  8. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 18, 2015
  9. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 11, 2015
  10. 13
    Not Available Aired on Jan 28, 2015
  11. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 21, 2015
  12. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 14, 2015
  13. 10
    Not Available Aired on Dec 03, 2014
  14. 9
    Not Available Aired on Nov 19, 2014
  15. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 12, 2014
  16. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 05, 2014
  17. 6
    Not Available Aired on Oct 29, 2014
  18. 5
    Not Available Aired on Oct 22, 2014
  19. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 08, 2014
  20. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 08, 2014
  21. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 24, 2014
  22. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 10, 2014
  1. 22
    Not Available Aired on May 28, 2014
  2. 21
    Not Available Aired on May 14, 2014
  3. 20
    Not Available Aired on May 07, 2014
  4. 19
    Not Available Aired on Apr 23, 2014
  5. 18
    Not Available Aired on Apr 16, 2014
  6. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 09, 2014
  7. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 02, 2014
  8. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 12, 2014
  9. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 05, 2014
  10. 13
    Not Available Aired on Jan 29, 2014
  11. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 22, 2014
  12. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 15, 2014
  13. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 08, 2014
  14. 9
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 2013
  15. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 2013
  16. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 13, 2013
  17. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 06, 2013
  18. 5
    Not Available Aired on Oct 30, 2013
  19. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 23, 2013
  20. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 16, 2013
  21. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 09, 2013
  22. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 11, 2013
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on May 29, 2013
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on May 29, 2013
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on May 01, 2013
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 24, 2013
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 17, 2013
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 10, 2013
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Apr 03, 2013
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Mar 27, 2013
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 20, 2013
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 13, 2013
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Feb 06, 2013
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 30, 2013
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 23, 2013
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Jan 09, 2013
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Jan 02, 2013
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 2012
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 14, 2012
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Nov 07, 2012
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 17, 2012
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 10, 2012
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on Apr 25, 2012
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Apr 18, 2012
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 11, 2012
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 04, 2012
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Mar 28, 2012
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 2012
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 2012
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 25, 2012
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 2012
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 11, 2012
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 2012
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 23, 2011
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 16, 2011
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 2011
  15. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 02, 2011
  16. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 26, 2011
  17. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 19, 2011
  18. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 28, 2011
  19. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 07, 2011
  1. 18
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 2011
  2. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 20, 2011
  3. 16
    Not Available Aired on Mar 30, 2011
  4. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 23, 2011
  5. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 16, 2011
  6. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 2011
  7. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 2011
  8. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 02, 2011
  9. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 26, 2011
  10. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 2011
  11. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 11, 2011
  12. 7
    Not Available Aired on Dec 28, 2010
  13. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 23, 2010
  14. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 16, 2010
  15. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 2010
  16. 3
    Not Available Aired on Nov 02, 2010
  17. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 26, 2010
  18. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 19, 2010
  1. 18
    Not Available Aired on May 04, 2010
  2. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 27, 2010
  3. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 13, 2010
  4. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 06, 2010
  5. 14
    Not Available Aired on Mar 02, 2010
  6. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 2010
  7. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 02, 2010
  8. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 2010
  9. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 12, 2010
  10. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 05, 2010
  11. 8
    Not Available Aired on Dec 29, 2009
  12. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 24, 2009
  13. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 17, 2009
  14. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 10, 2009
  15. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 03, 2009
  16. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 20, 2009
  17. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 13, 2009
  18. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 06, 2009
  1. 17
    Not Available Aired on Jun 30, 2009
  2. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 14, 2009
  3. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 07, 2009
  4. 14
    Not Available Aired on Mar 31, 2009
  5. 13
    Not Available Aired on Mar 24, 2009
  6. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 24, 2009
  7. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 03, 2009
  8. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 27, 2009
  9. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 20, 2009
  10. 8
    Not Available Aired on Dec 30, 2008
  11. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 2008
  12. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 2008
  13. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 11, 2008
  14. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 28, 2008
  15. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 21, 2008
  16. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 14, 2008
  17. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 07, 2008
  1. 17
    Not Available Aired on May 20, 2008
  2. 16
    Not Available Aired on May 13, 2008
  3. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 22, 2008
  4. 14
    Not Available Aired on Apr 08, 2008
  5. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 26, 2008
  6. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 19, 2008
  7. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 12, 2008
  8. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 29, 2008
  9. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 15, 2008
  10. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 08, 2008
  11. 7
    Not Available Aired on Dec 18, 2007
  12. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 2007
  13. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 13, 2007
  14. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 07, 2007
  15. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 30, 2007
  16. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 16, 2007
  17. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 09, 2007
  1. 15
    Not Available Aired on Jun 26, 2007
  2. 14
    Not Available Aired on Jun 19, 2007
  3. 13
    Not Available Aired on May 08, 2007
  4. 12
    Not Available Aired on Apr 24, 2007
  5. 11
    Not Available Aired on Apr 17, 2007
  6. 10
    Not Available Aired on Apr 03, 2007
  7. 9
    Not Available Aired on Feb 13, 2007
  8. 8
    Not Available Aired on Feb 06, 2007
  9. 7
    Not Available Aired on Dec 26, 2006
  10. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 14, 2006
  11. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 07, 2006
  12. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 31, 2006
  13. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 17, 2006
  14. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 26, 2006
  15. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 05, 2006
  1. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 18, 2006
  2. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 04, 2006
  3. 14
    Not Available Aired on Mar 28, 2006
  4. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 28, 2006
  5. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 21, 2006
  6. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 14, 2006
  7. 10
    Not Available Aired on Feb 07, 2006
  8. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 17, 2006
  9. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 03, 2006
  10. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 22, 2005
  11. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 15, 2005
  12. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 08, 2005
  13. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 01, 2005
  14. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 11, 2005
  15. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 04, 2005
  16. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 20, 2005
  1. 15
    Not Available Aired on Mar 29, 2005
  2. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 22, 2005
  3. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 2005
  4. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 2005
  5. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 2005
  6. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 11, 2005
  7. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 2005
  8. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 23, 2004
  9. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 16, 2004
  10. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 2004
  11. 5
    Not Available Aired on Oct 12, 2004
  12. 4
    Not Available Aired on Sep 29, 2004
  13. 3
    Not Available Aired on Sep 29, 2004
  14. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 28, 2004
  15. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 28, 2004
  1. 18
    Not Available Aired on May 04, 2004
  2. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 20, 2004
  3. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 20, 2004
  4. 15
    Not Available Aired on Mar 30, 2004
  5. 14
    Not Available Aired on Mar 02, 2004
  6. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 17, 2004
  7. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 10, 2004
  8. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 03, 2004
  9. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 20, 2004
  10. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 2004
  11. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 2003
  12. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 2003
  13. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 11, 2003
  14. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 04, 2003
  15. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 28, 2003
  16. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 28, 2003
  17. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 07, 2003
  18. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 30, 2003
  1. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 15, 2003
  2. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 01, 2003
  3. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 25, 2003
  4. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 18, 2003
  5. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 11, 2003
  6. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 04, 2003
  7. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 21, 2003
  8. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 14, 2003
  9. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 07, 2003
  10. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 26, 2002
  11. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 19, 2002
  12. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 12, 2002
  13. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 29, 2002
  14. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 08, 2002
  15. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 01, 2002
  16. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 03, 2002
  1. 17
    Not Available Aired on May 07, 2002
  2. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 30, 2002
  3. 15
    Not Available Aired on Mar 26, 2002
  4. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 26, 2002
  5. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 05, 2002
  6. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 22, 2002
  7. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 08, 2002
  8. 9
    Not Available Aired on Dec 25, 2001
  9. 8
    Not Available Aired on Dec 11, 2001
  10. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 2001
  11. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 13, 2001
  12. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 06, 2001
  13. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 30, 2001
  14. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 23, 2001
  15. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 09, 2001
  16. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 02, 2001
  1. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 24, 2001
  2. 16
    Not Available Aired on Apr 17, 2001
  3. 15
    Not Available Aired on Apr 10, 2001
  4. 14
    Not Available Aired on Apr 03, 2001
  5. 13
    Not Available Aired on Mar 27, 2001
  6. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 27, 2001
  7. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 13, 2001
  8. 10
    Not Available Aired on Feb 06, 2001
  9. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 30, 2001
  10. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 16, 2001
  11. 7
    Not Available Aired on Dec 18, 2000
  12. 6
    Not Available Aired on Dec 12, 2000
  13. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 28, 2000
  14. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 21, 2000
  15. 3
    Not Available Aired on Nov 14, 2000
  16. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 31, 2000
  17. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 24, 2000
  1. 21
    Not Available Aired on May 09, 2000
  2. 20
    Not Available Aired on Apr 25, 2000
  3. 19
    Not Available Aired on Apr 18, 2000
  4. 18
    Not Available Aired on Feb 29, 2000
  5. 17
    Not Available Aired on Feb 22, 2000
  6. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 22, 2000
  7. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 2000
  8. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 2000
  9. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 2000
  10. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 2000
  11. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 2000
  12. 10
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 2000
  13. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 2000
  14. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 2000
  15. 7
    Not Available Aired on Dec 21, 1999
  16. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 23, 1999
  17. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 1999
  18. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 02, 1999
  19. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 19, 1999
  20. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 12, 1999
  21. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 05, 1999
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on Mar 30, 1999
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Feb 23, 1999
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Feb 17, 1999
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 17, 1999
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 16, 1999
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 16, 1999
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 06, 1999
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 1999
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 12, 1999
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Dec 29, 1998
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Dec 01, 1998
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 24, 1998
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 24, 1998
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 24, 1998
  15. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 10, 1998
  16. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 03, 1998
  17. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 27, 1998
  18. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 13, 1998
  19. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 06, 1998
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on May 12, 1998
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Apr 28, 1998
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 21, 1998
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Mar 31, 1998
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 24, 1998
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 10, 1998
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 03, 1998
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 27, 1998
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 20, 1998
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 06, 1998
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Dec 02, 1997
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 1997
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 1997
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 12, 1997
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    Not Available Aired on Nov 11, 1997
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    Not Available Aired on Oct 28, 1997
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    Not Available Aired on Oct 21, 1997
  18. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 14, 1997
  19. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 07, 1997
  1. 21
    Not Available Aired on Apr 15, 1997
  2. 20
    Not Available Aired on Apr 08, 1997
  3. 19
    Not Available Aired on Feb 25, 1997
  4. 18
    Not Available Aired on Feb 18, 1997
  5. 17
    Not Available Aired on Feb 12, 1997
  6. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 12, 1997
  7. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 11, 1997
  8. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 11, 1997
  9. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 04, 1997
  10. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 28, 1997
  11. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 14, 1997
  12. 10
    Not Available Aired on Dec 31, 1996
  13. 9
    Not Available Aired on Nov 26, 1996
  14. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 1996
  15. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 24, 1996
  16. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 19, 1996
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    Not Available Aired on Nov 12, 1996
  18. 4
    Not Available Aired on Oct 22, 1996
  19. 3
    Not Available Aired on Oct 15, 1996
  20. 2
    Not Available Aired on Oct 08, 1996
  21. 1
    Not Available Aired on Oct 01, 1996
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on Apr 16, 1996
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Apr 09, 1996
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 02, 1996
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Mar 26, 1996
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 27, 1996
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Feb 20, 1996
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 06, 1996
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 30, 1996
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Jan 16, 1996
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 09, 1996
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Dec 26, 1995
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Dec 19, 1995
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Nov 28, 1995
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Nov 14, 1995
  15. 5
    Not Available Aired on Nov 07, 1995
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    Not Available Aired on Oct 31, 1995
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    Not Available Aired on Oct 24, 1995
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    Not Available Aired on Oct 17, 1995
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    Not Available Aired on Oct 10, 1995
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Feb 23, 1995
  2. 19
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  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Feb 21, 1995
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Feb 20, 1995
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 19, 1995
  6. 8
    Not Available Aired on May 23, 1995
  7. 7
    Not Available Aired on May 03, 1995
  8. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 07, 1995
  9. 5
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    Not Available Aired on Jan 09, 1995
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 27, 1994
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    Not Available Aired on Dec 20, 1994
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 06, 1994
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    Not Available Aired on Nov 29, 1994
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    Not Available Aired on Nov 15, 1994
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 08, 1994
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 01, 1994
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 25, 1994
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 18, 1994
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 11, 1994
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Apr 19, 1994
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Apr 12, 1994
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 02, 1994
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 01, 1994
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 28, 1994
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 1994
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 1994
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 1994
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 25, 1994
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 1994
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 28, 1993
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 21, 1993
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 07, 1993
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 30, 1993
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 16, 1993
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 1993
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 02, 1993
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 26, 1993
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 19, 1993
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 12, 1993
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Oct 05, 1993
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 30, 1993
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 02, 1993
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Feb 23, 1993
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 16, 1993
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 1993
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 02, 1993
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 26, 1993
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 1993
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 05, 1993
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 29, 1992
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 22, 1992
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 01, 1992
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 17, 1992
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 10, 1992
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 04, 1992
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 27, 1992
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 20, 1992
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 13, 1992
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Sep 29, 1992
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Aug 25, 1992
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 24, 1992
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 17, 1992
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 10, 1992
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 03, 1992
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 18, 1992
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 11, 1992
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 28, 1992
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 21, 1992
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 14, 1992
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 17, 1991
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 10, 1991
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Dec 03, 1991
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 12, 1991
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 05, 1991
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 22, 1991
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 15, 1991
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 09, 1991
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 01, 1991
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Dec 04, 1990
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 05, 1991
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Feb 28, 1991
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Feb 27, 1991
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Feb 26, 1991
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 19, 1991
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 12, 1991
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 05, 1991
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Mar 26, 1991
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Apr 30, 1991
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 08, 1991
  1. 21
    Not Available Aired on Nov 07, 1989
  2. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 18, 1990
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Nov 27, 1990
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 1990
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 13, 1990
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 06, 1990
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 30, 1990
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 23, 1990
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 16, 1990
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 09, 1990
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Apr 10, 1990
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Apr 03, 1990
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 27, 1990
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 20, 1990
  15. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 27, 1990
  16. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 13, 1990
  17. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 06, 1990
  18. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 23, 1990
  19. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 09, 1990
  1. 31
    Not Available Aired on Dec 12, 1989
  2. 30
    Not Available Aired on Dec 05, 1989
  3. 29
    Not Available Aired on Nov 21, 1989
  4. 28
    Not Available Aired on Nov 14, 1989
  5. 27
    Not Available Aired on Nov 07, 1989
  6. 26
    Not Available Aired on Oct 31, 1989
  7. 25
    Not Available Aired on Oct 24, 1989
  8. 24
    Not Available Aired on Oct 17, 1989
  9. 23
    Not Available Aired on Oct 10, 1989
  10. 22
    Not Available Aired on Oct 03, 1989
  11. 21
    Not Available Aired on Mar 28, 1989
  12. 20
    Not Available Aired on Mar 21, 1989
  13. 19
    Not Available Aired on Mar 07, 1989
  14. 18
    Not Available Aired on Mar 07, 1989
  15. 17
    Not Available Aired on Feb 28, 1989
  16. 16
    Not Available Aired on Feb 21, 1989
  17. 15
    Not Available Aired on Feb 14, 1989
  18. 14
    Not Available Aired on Jan 31, 1989
  19. 13
    Not Available Aired on Jan 24, 1989
  20. 12
    Not Available Aired on Jan 17, 1989
  21. 11
    Not Available Aired on Dec 13, 1988
  22. 10
    Not Available Aired on Dec 06, 1988
  23. 9
    Not Available Aired on Nov 22, 1988
  24. 8
    Not Available Aired on Nov 15, 1988
  25. 7
    Not Available Aired on Oct 25, 1988
  26. 6
    Not Available Aired on Oct 11, 1988
  27. 5
    Not Available Aired on Oct 04, 1988
  28. 4
    Not Available Aired on Sep 27, 1988
  29. 3
    Not Available Aired on Sep 20, 1988
  30. 2
    Not Available Aired on Sep 13, 1988
  31. 1
    Not Available Aired on Sep 06, 1988
  1. 11
    Not Available Aired on Apr 05, 1988
  2. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 29, 1988
  3. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 22, 1988
  4. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 15, 1988
  5. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 08, 1988
  6. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 01, 1988
  7. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 23, 1988
  8. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 1988
  9. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 02, 1988
  10. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 26, 1988
  11. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 1988
  1. 21
    Not Available Aired on Dec 15, 1987
  2. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 08, 1987
  3. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 01, 1987
  4. 18
    Not Available Aired on Nov 17, 1987
  5. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 10, 1987
  6. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 03, 1987
  7. 15
    Not Available Aired on Oct 27, 1987
  8. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 20, 1987
  9. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 13, 1987
  10. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 06, 1987
  11. 11
    Not Available Aired on Apr 07, 1987
  12. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 31, 1987
  13. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 24, 1987
  14. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 10, 1987
  15. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 03, 1987
  16. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 24, 1987
  17. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 17, 1987
  18. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 10, 1987
  19. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 03, 1987
  20. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 27, 1987
  21. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 20, 1987
  1. 21
    Not Available Aired on Jan 13, 1987
  2. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 16, 1986
  3. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 09, 1986
  4. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 02, 1986
  5. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 1986
  6. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 1986
  7. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 11, 1986
  8. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 04, 1986
  9. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 21, 1986
  10. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 14, 1986
  11. 11
    Not Available Aired on Apr 22, 1986
  12. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 25, 1986
  13. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 18, 1986
  14. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 11, 1986
  15. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 04, 1986
  16. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 25, 1986
  17. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 18, 1986
  18. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 11, 1986
  19. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 04, 1986
  20. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 28, 1986
  21. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 21, 1986
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 17, 1985
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 03, 1985
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Nov 26, 1985
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 19, 1985
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 12, 1985
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 05, 1985
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 29, 1985
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 22, 1985
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 15, 1985
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 08, 1985
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 19, 1985
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 12, 1985
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 05, 1985
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Feb 26, 1985
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 19, 1985
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 12, 1985
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 05, 1985
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 29, 1985
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 22, 1985
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 15, 1985
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Jan 08, 1985
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 18, 1984
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 11, 1984
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Dec 04, 1984
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 27, 1984
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 1984
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 13, 1984
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Nov 06, 1984
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 30, 1984
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 23, 1984
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Oct 16, 1984
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Oct 02, 1984
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Apr 03, 1984
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 27, 1984
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 20, 1984
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Mar 06, 1984
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 28, 1984
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 14, 1984
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 31, 1984
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 17, 1984
  1. 21
    Not Available Aired on Jan 10, 1984
  2. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 27, 1983
  3. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 20, 1983
  4. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 13, 1983
  5. 17
    Not Available Aired on Dec 06, 1983
  6. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 29, 1983
  7. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 22, 1983
  8. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 15, 1983
  9. 13
    Not Available Aired on Nov 08, 1983
  10. 12
    Not Available Aired on Nov 01, 1983
  11. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 25, 1983
  12. 10
    Not Available Aired on Oct 18, 1983
  13. 9
    Not Available Aired on Oct 11, 1983
  14. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 29, 1983
  15. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 22, 1983
  16. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 08, 1983
  17. 5
    Not Available Aired on Mar 01, 1983
  18. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 1983
  19. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 1983
  20. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 25, 1983
  21. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 1983
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 1983
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 14, 1982
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Dec 07, 1982
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 30, 1982
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 23, 1982
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 16, 1982
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Nov 09, 1982
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 19, 1982
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 12, 1982
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 28, 1982
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 14, 1982
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 07, 1982
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Feb 28, 1982
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 14, 1982
  15. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 07, 1982
  16. 4
    Not Available Aired on Jan 31, 1982
  17. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 24, 1982
  18. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 17, 1982
  19. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 10, 1982
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 06, 1981
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Nov 29, 1981
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Nov 22, 1981
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Nov 15, 1981
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 01, 1981
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Oct 25, 1981
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 18, 1981
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 11, 1981
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 04, 1981
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Sep 27, 1981
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Aug 25, 1981
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 17, 1981
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 10, 1981
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 03, 1981
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 24, 1981
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 17, 1981
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 10, 1981
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 27, 1981
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 20, 1981
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 06, 1981
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Dec 30, 1980
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 23, 1980
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 09, 1980
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Dec 02, 1980
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 25, 1980
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 18, 1980
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Nov 11, 1980
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Nov 04, 1980
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 28, 1980
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 14, 1980
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Oct 07, 1980
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Sep 30, 1980
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 25, 1980
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 18, 1980
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Mar 11, 1980
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Mar 04, 1980
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 19, 1980
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Feb 05, 1980
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 22, 1980
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 15, 1980
  1. 19
    Not Available Aired on Dec 18, 1979
  2. 18
    Not Available Aired on Dec 11, 1979
  3. 17
    Not Available Aired on Dec 04, 1979
  4. 16
    Not Available Aired on Nov 20, 1979
  5. 15
    Not Available Aired on Nov 06, 1979
  6. 14
    Not Available Aired on Oct 30, 1979
  7. 13
    Not Available Aired on Oct 16, 1979
  8. 12
    Not Available Aired on Oct 09, 1979
  9. 11
    Not Available Aired on Oct 02, 1979
  10. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 29, 1979
  11. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 15, 1979
  12. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 08, 1979
  13. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 01, 1979
  14. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 22, 1979
  15. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 1979
  16. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 1979
  17. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 1979
  18. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 11, 1979
  19. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 1979
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Jun 28, 1978
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Jun 21, 1978
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Jun 14, 1978
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Jun 07, 1978
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on May 31, 1978
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on May 24, 1978
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on May 10, 1978
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on May 03, 1978
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Apr 19, 1978
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Apr 12, 1978
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 29, 1978
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 22, 1978
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 08, 1978
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 01, 1978
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 22, 1978
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 1978
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 1978
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 25, 1978
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 1978
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 1978
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Jan 11, 1978
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Jun 29, 1977
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Jun 22, 1977
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Jun 01, 1977
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on May 18, 1977
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on May 11, 1977
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on Apr 27, 1977
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Apr 20, 1977
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Apr 20, 1977
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Mar 30, 1977
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 23, 1977
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 16, 1977
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 09, 1977
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Mar 02, 1977
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 23, 1977
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 1977
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Feb 02, 1977
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 1977
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 12, 1977
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 05, 1977
  1. 20
    Not Available Aired on Jun 27, 1976
  2. 19
    Not Available Aired on Jun 20, 1976
  3. 18
    Not Available Aired on Jun 13, 1976
  4. 17
    Not Available Aired on Jun 06, 1976
  5. 16
    Not Available Aired on May 23, 1976
  6. 15
    Not Available Aired on May 09, 1976
  7. 14
    Not Available Aired on May 02, 1976
  8. 13
    Not Available Aired on Apr 18, 1976
  9. 12
    Not Available Aired on Apr 11, 1976
  10. 11
    Not Available Aired on Mar 21, 1976
  11. 10
    Not Available Aired on Mar 14, 1976
  12. 9
    Not Available Aired on Mar 07, 1976
  13. 8
    Not Available Aired on Mar 07, 1976
  14. 7
    Not Available Aired on Feb 15, 1976
  15. 6
    Not Available Aired on Feb 08, 1976
  16. 5
    Not Available Aired on Feb 01, 1976
  17. 4
    Not Available Aired on Jan 25, 1976
  18. 3
    Not Available Aired on Jan 18, 1976
  19. 2
    Not Available Aired on Jan 11, 1976
  20. 1
    Not Available Aired on Jan 04, 1976
  1. 17
    Not Available Aired on Apr 06, 1975
  2. 16
    Not Available Aired on Mar 30, 1975
  3. 15
    Not Available Aired on Mar 16, 1975
  4. 14
    Not Available Aired on Mar 09, 1975
  5. 13
    Not Available Aired on Feb 16, 1975
  6. 12
    Not Available Aired on Feb 09, 1975
  7. 11
    Not Available Aired on Feb 02, 1975
  8. 10
    Not Available Aired on Jan 19, 1975
  9. 9
    Not Available Aired on Jan 12, 1975
  10. 8
    Not Available Aired on Jan 05, 1975
  11. 7
    Not Available Aired on Dec 15, 1974
  12. 6
    Not Available Aired on Dec 08, 1974
  13. 5
    Not Available Aired on Dec 01, 1974
  14. 4
    Not Available Aired on Nov 24, 1974
  15. 3
    Not Available Aired on Nov 17, 1974
  16. 2
    Not Available Aired on Nov 10, 1974
  17. 1
    Not Available Aired on Nov 03, 1974
  1. 13
    Not Available Aired on May 26, 1974
  2. 12
    Not Available Aired on May 19, 1974
  3. 11
    Not Available Aired on May 12, 1974
  4. 10
    Not Available Aired on May 05, 1974
  5. 9
    Not Available Aired on Apr 28, 1974
  6. 8
    Not Available Aired on Apr 21, 1974
  7. 7
    Not Available Aired on Apr 14, 1974
  8. 6
    Not Available Aired on Apr 07, 1974
  9. 5
    Not Available Aired on Mar 31, 1974
  10. 4
    Not Available Aired on Mar 24, 1974
  11. 3
    Not Available Aired on Mar 17, 1974
  12. 2
    Not Available Aired on Mar 10, 1974
  13. 1
    Not Available Aired on Mar 03, 1974

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Watch NOVA season 43 episode 16 (S43E16)

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He was stalked, attacked and left to die alone. Murdered more than 5,000 years ago, Otzi the Iceman is Europe’s oldest known natural mummy. Miraculously preserved in glacial ice, his remarkably intact remains continue to provide scientists, historians, and archeologists with groundbreaking discoveries about a crucial time in human history. But in order to protect him from contamination, this extraordinary body has been locked away, out of reach, in a frozen crypt—until now. NOVA joins renowned artist and paleo-sculptor Gary Staab as he has been granted rare access into the Iceman’s frozen lair. Gary has been charged with creating an exact replica of the mummy, which scientists and the public alike can then study up close and in person. As we see the Iceman reborn from 3D printing, resin, clay and paint, new revelations about Otzi’s life and legacy come to light, including surprising secrets hidden in his genetic code.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 15 (S43E15)

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Memory is the glue that binds our mental lives. Without it, we’d be prisoners of the present, unable to use the lessons of the past to change our future. From our first kiss to where we put our keys, memory represents who we are and how we learn and navigate the world. But how does it work? Neuroscientists using cutting-edge techniques are exploring the precise molecular mechanisms of memory. By studying a range of individuals ranging—from an 11-year-old whiz-kid who remembers every detail of his life to a woman who had memories implanted—scientists have uncovered a provocative idea. For much of human history, memory has been seen as a tape recorder that faithfully registers information and replays intact. But now, researchers are discovering that memory is far more malleable, always being written and rewritten, not just by us but by others. We are discovering the precise mechanisms that can explain and even control our memories. The question is—are we ready?

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 14 (S43E14)

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On a summer’s night, there’s nothing more magic than watching the soft glow of fireflies switching on and off. Few other life forms on land can light up the night, but in the dark depths of the oceans, it’s a different story: nearly 90% of all species shine from within. Whether it’s to scare off predators, fish for prey, or lure a mate, the language of light is everywhere in the ocean depths, and scientists are finally starting to decode it. NOVA and National Geographic take a dazzling dive to this hidden undersea world where most creatures flash, sparkle, shimmer, or simply glow. Join deep sea scientists who investigate these stunning displays and discover surprising ways to harness nature’s light—from tracking cancer cells to detecting pollution, lighting up cities, and even illuminating the inner workings of our brains.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 13 (S43E13)

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On April 25, 2015, a devastating earthquake rocked Nepal. As it ripped across the Himalayas, it wiped out villages and left thousands dead. Hear the harrowing stories of the Nepalese people who lived near the epicenter and of survivors trapped on Everest. Through dramatic eyewitness footage, expert interviews, and stunning graphics, NOVA reveals the anatomy of this megaquake while scientists race to answer urgent questions—Is another big one just around the corner? What can we learn from the deadly combination of earthquakes and landslides? And can we rebuild to survive the next big one?

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 12 (S43E12)

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Tiny, transparent, and threatened, krill are crucial to the Antarctic ecosystem. But the population of krill is crashing for reasons that continue to baffle the experts. A leading theory says that krill’s life cycle is driven by an internal body clock that responds to the waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice pack, and as climate change alters the timing of the ice pack, their life cycle is disrupted. To test it, NOVA travels on the Polarstern, a state-of-the-art research vessel, to the frigid ice pack in the dead of winter. From camps established on the ice, scientists dive beneath the surface in search of the ice caves that shelter juvenile krill during the winter. There, they hope to discover what’s causing the krill to vanish and, ultimately, how the shifting seasons caused by climate change could disrupt ecosystems around the world.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 11 (S43E11)

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Four and a half billion years ago, the young Earth was a hellish place—a seething chaos of meteorite impacts, volcanoes belching noxious gases, and lightning flashing through a thin, torrid atmosphere. Then, in a process that has puzzled scientists for decades, life emerged. But how? NOVA joins mineralogist Robert Hazen as he journeys around the globe. From an ancient Moroccan market to the Australian Outback, he advances a startling and counterintuitive idea—that the rocks beneath our feet were not only essential to jump-starting life, but that microbial life helped give birth to hundreds of minerals we know and depend on today. It's a theory of the co-evolution of Earth and life that is reshaping the grand-narrative of our planet’s story.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 10 (S43E10)

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During World War I, the Allies and Germans repeatedly struggled to break the hideous stalemate of trench warfare. In the winter of 1916, Allied engineers devised a massive surprise attack: over 1 million pounds of explosives hidden in secret tunnels driven under German lines. Building the tunnels was desperate work, with tunnelers at constant risk from flooding, cave-ins, and enemy digging teams. In June of 1917, the planted mines at Messines were simultaneously triggered, killing an estimated 10,000 German troops instantly. Now, archaeologists are revealing the extraordinary scale and risks of the Allied tunneling operations in one of the biggest excavations ever undertaken on the Western Front. “Secret Tunnel Warfare” opens a unique window on the frenzy of Allied mining activity that led up to the attack and its bitter aftermath.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 9 (S43E09)

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On November 25th, 1915, Einstein published his greatest work: general relativity. The theory transformed our understanding of nature’s laws and the entire history of the cosmos, reaching back to the origin of time itself. Now, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s achievement, NOVA tells the inside story of Einstein’s masterpiece. The story begins with the intuitive thought experiments that set Einstein off on his quest and traces the revolution in cosmology that is still playing out in today’s labs and observatories. Discover the simple but powerful ideas at the heart of relativity, illuminating the theory—and Einstein’s brilliance—as never before. From the first spark of an idea to the discovery of the expanding universe, the Big Bang, black holes, and dark energy, NOVA uncovers the inspired insights and brilliant breakthroughs of “the perfect theory.”

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 8 (S43E08)

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The history of North America since the arrival of humans is chronicled. Natural resources, including gold and oil, have enabled humans to transform the land almost as much as the geological forces that created it. However, geology may, some day, play another role in reshaping the continent: the Cascadia fault line in the Pacific Northwest could unleash a massive earthquake and tsunami; and the super-volcano beneath Yellowstone could obliterate half the continent if it erupts.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 7 (S43E07)

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How did life emerge on our primeval continent? Why was North America home to so many iconic dinosaurs like T. rex? And how did a huge sea filled with giant marine reptiles end up covering Kansas? We tell the surprising intertwined story of life and the landscape in North America.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 6 (S43E06)

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The epic 3 billion-year story of how our continent came to be. From the palm trees that once flourished in Alaska to titanic eruptions that nearly tore the Midwest in two, discover how forces of almost unimaginable power gave birth to North America.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 5 (S43E05)

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NOVA joins a team of leading Egyptologists who deploy the latest medical imaging to peer beneath the wrappings of Egyptian mummified beasts without damaging the animal bodies inside. The results are enlightening, often surprising insights into the weird beliefs and practices that clung to the Egyptian quest for immortality.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 4 (S43E04)

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NOVA examines the science and technology behind cyber warfare and asks if we are already in the midst of a deadly new arms race.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 3 (S43E03)

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A team of historians and expert boat builders investigates the fascinating Noah's Ark flood legend and sets out to rebuild a tantalizing, ancient forerunner of the Ark.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 2 (S43E02)

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NOVA presents an exclusive breakthrough in the greatest unsolved mystery in Arctic exploration. In 1845, British explorer Sir John Franklin set off to chart the elusive Northwest Passage, commanding 128 men in two robust and well-stocked Royal Navy ships, the Erebus and Terror.  They were never heard from again.  Eventually, searchers found tantalising clues to their fate: a hastily written note left on an island, exhumed bodies suggesting lead poisoning, discarded human bones with marks of cannibalism and Inuit legends of ghost ships.  But no trace of the ships was ever found. Then, in 2014, after seven years of searching, an official Parks Canada expedition finally located the Erebus, intact and upright on the sea floor. With exclusive access, NOVA tells the inside story of the risky Canadian expedition, which involved constant battles with crushing sea ice, bad weather, and disappointing dead ends. Culminating in the historic discovery of the Erebus, NOVA tells the gripping story of the ill-fated expedition and reveals exclusive new clues from the sea floor that may finally unravel what happened to Franklin’s men more than 160 years ago.

Watch NOVA season 43 episode 1 (S43E01)

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NOVA and National Geographic present exclusive access to a unique discovery of ancient remains. Located in an almost inaccessible chamber deep in a South African cave, the site required recruiting a special team of experts slender enough to wriggle down a vertical, pitch-dark, seven-inch-wide passage. Most fossil discoveries of human relatives consist of just a handful of bones. But down in this hidden chamber, the team uncovered an unprecedented trove—so far, over 1,500 bones—with the potential to rewrite the story of our origins. They may help fill in a crucial gap in the fossil record and tell us how Homo, the first member of the human family, emerged from ape-like ancestors like the famous Lucy. But how did hundreds of bones end up in the remote chamber? The experts are considering every mind-boggling possibility. Join NOVA on the treacherous descent into this cave of spectacular and enigmatic finds, and discover their startling implications for the saga of what made us human.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 22 (S42E22)

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NOVA reveals the minute-by-minute story of the Fukushima nuclear crisis—the one you know about, and the one you likely don’t: the perilously close call at the other Fukushima nuclear power plant a few miles away from the meltdowns. With unprecedented access inside both Fukushima nuclear power plants, NOVA speaks with workers who were there during the harrowing days—a crisis that began as a natural a disaster but was made worse by human beings. But why did the worst happen at one plant while another that faced nearly identical challenges emerged unscathed? It may come down to the skill and knowledge of one man, who has worked there since they started construction. These are crucial questions as the company that runs both plants, TEPCO, tries to clean up an unprecedented radioactive mess and seeks to reopen the plant that was just barely saved.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 21 (S42E21)

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On July 14, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft, one of the most advanced ever built, is scheduled to fly by Pluto to take the very first detailed images of the dwarf planet. After nine years and 3 billion miles, we will finally get a close look at this strange, icy world, but only if the craft can survive the final, treacherous leg of its journey, which could take it through a dangerous field of debris. If it does, New Horizons is poised to make dramatic new discoveries, not just about Pluto, but about the vast realm of icy bodies lurking beyond Neptune, relics of the earliest days of the solar system’s formation. Back on Earth, the planetary scientists who have spent decades working on this mission anxiously await a signal from their spacecraft. Our cameras will be there to witness the moment. If all goes well, we’ll see Pluto’s mysterious surface in unprecedented detail and learn new secrets about other alien worlds at the far limits of our solar system.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 20 (S42E20)

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Sharply rising carbon emissions are entering Earth's seas at a staggering rate, raising their acidity. Learn how scientists are researching the effects and looking for solutions.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 19 (S42E19)

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Long before 9/11, a far deadlier, little-known attack from the ocean depths struck our shores, lasting three-and-a-half years and claiming 5,000 lives. Now, famed undersea explorer Bob Ballard, discoverer of the Titanic, investigates the wreck of one of the attack craft, a German submarine that lies at the bottom of the gulf just a few miles off New Orleans. U-166 was part of Operation Drumbeat, a highly successful U-boat operation that caught East Coast cities and shipping almost completely unprepared. Ballard probes the wreck and unravels a dramatic mystery in the official story of the sub's sinking.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 18 (S42E18)

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Twenty-five years ago, NASA launched one of the most ambitious experiments in the history of astronomy: the Hubble Space Telescope. In honor of Hubble's landmark anniversary, NOVA tells the remarkable story of the telescope that forever changed our understanding of the cosmos. But Hubble's early days nearly doomed it to failure: a one-millimeter engineering blunder had turned the billion-dollar telescope into an object of ridicule. It fell to five heroic astronauts in a daring mission to return Hubble to the cutting edge of science. This single telescope has helped astronomers pinpoint the age of the universe, revealed the birthplace of stars and planets, advanced our understanding of dark energy and cosmic expansion, and uncovered black holes lurking at the heart of galaxies. Join NOVA for the story of this magnificent machine and its astonishing discoveries.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 17 (S42E17)

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Join NOVA on a mathematical mystery tour—a provocative exploration of math's astonishing power across the centuries. We discover math's signature in the swirl of a nautilus shell, the whirlpool of a galaxy, and the spiral in the center of a sunflower. Math was essential to everything from the first wireless radio transmissions to the prediction and discovery of the Higgs boson and the successful landing of rovers on Mars. Astrophysicist and writer Mario Livio, along with a colorful cast of mathematicians, physicists, and engineers, follow math from Pythagoras to Einstein and beyond. It all leads to the ultimate riddle: Is math a human invention or the discovery of the language of the universe?

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 16 (S42E16)

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Whether serving as Christian church, Islamic mosque, or secular museum, Hagia Sophia and its saring dome have inspired reverence and awe. For 800 years, it was the largest enclosed building in the world—the Statue of Liberty can fit beneath its dome with room to spare. How has it survived its location on one of the world’s most active seismic faults, which has inflicted a dozen devastating earthquakes since it was built in 537? As Istanbul braces for the next big quake, a team of architects and engineers is urgently investigating Hagia Sophia’s seismic secrets. Follow engineers as they build a massive 8-ton model of the building’s core structure, place it on a motorized shake table, and hit it with a series of simulated quakes, pushing it collapse—a fate that the team is determined to avoid with the real building.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 15 (S42E15)

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Recounting the daring experiment now underway to uncover how the ancient metropolis was built. More than 2,000 years ago, the thriving city of Petra rose up in the bone-dry desert of what is now Jordan. An oasis of culture and abundance, the city was built by wealthy merchants whose camel caravans transported incense and spices from the Arabian Gulf. They carved spectacular temple-tombs into its soaring cliffs, raised a monumental Great Temple at its heart, and devised an ingenious system that channeled water to vineyards, bathhouses, fountains, and pools. But following a catastrophic earthquake and a slump in its desert trade routes, Petra's unique culture faded and was lost to most of the world for nearly a thousand years. Now, in a daring experiment, an archaeologist and sculptors team up to carve an iconic temple-tomb to find out how the ancient people of Petra built their city of stone. Meanwhile, scientists using remote sensors and hydraulic flumes uncover the vast city and its sophisticated water system. The race is on to discover how these nomads created this oasis of culture in one of the harshest climates on Earth.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 14 (S42E14)

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One of the ancient world's most iconic buildings, the Colosseum is a monument to Roman imperial power and cruelty. Its graceful lines and harmonious proportions concealed a highly efficient design and advanced construction methods that made hundreds of arches out of 100,000 tons of stone. In its elliptical arena, tens of thousands of gladiators, slaves, prisoners, and wild animals met their deaths. Ancient texts report lions and elephants emerging from beneath the floor, as if by magic, to ravage gladiators and people condemned to death. Then, just as quickly, the Colosseum could be flooded with so much water that ships could engage in sea battles to the delight of the crowd. Now, archaeologists and engineers are teaming up to recreate a 25-foot lifting machine and trap door system capable of releasing a wolf into the Colosseum's arena for the first time in 1,500 years. Do they have what it takes to replicate the innovation and ingenuity of the Romans?

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 13 (S42E13)

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These geological hazards have swallowed highways, apartment buildings, horses, camels, even golfers, with monster-size holes cracking the earth from Siberia to Louisiana. Filled with compelling eyewitness video of dramatic collapses, and following scientists as they explore the underlying forces behind these natural disasters, NOVA travels the globe to investigate what it's like to have your world vanish beneath your feet.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 12 (S42E12)

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Follow the epic operation to secure, raise, and salvage the Costa Concordia cruise ship, which ran aground and tragically capsized off the coast of Italy on January 13, 2012, killing 32 people. The massive wreck—with a 160-foot-long hole in its hull—stretches the length of three football fields, weighs 45,000 tons, and was half submerged on the site of a protected reef. Moving it from its precarious perch on the edge of an underwater cliff turned into a technical and logistical challenge of staggering proportions.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 11 (S42E11)

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On July 4, 2012, scientists at the giant atom smashing facility at CERN announced the discovery of a subatomic particle that seems like a tantalizingly close match to the elusive Higgs Boson, thought to be responsible for giving all the stuff in the universe its mass. Since it was first proposed nearly fifty years ago, the Higgs has been the holy grail of particle physicists: in finding it they validate the "standard model" that underlies all of modern physics and open the door to new discoveries when CERN's giant collider switches on at higher power in 2015.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 10 (S42E10)

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When Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon, he won instant fame. Yet this accomplished engineer and test pilot was so determined to stay out of the limelight that few know the personal story of how his rare combination of talent, luck and experience led to his successful command of Apollo 11. NOVA presents an intimate portrait of an unassuming American hero through interviews with Armstrong’s family and friends.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 9 (S42E09)

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In less than two minutes in March, a one-square-mile field of debris slammed into the Washington state community of Oso, killing 41 and destroying nearly 50 homes. Drawing on analysis of other recent landslides around the world, geologists are investigating what triggered the deadliest U.S. landslide in decades and whether climate change is increasing the risk of similar disasters around the globe.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 8 (S42E08)

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To defend himself in the afterlife, the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, was buried in a vast mausoleum accompanied by around 9,000 life-sized terracotta statues. With exclusive access to groundbreaking new research, NOVA investigates the secrets of how and why the astonishing figures were made and the technology behind the still lethal and highly-advanced crossbows, spears, and swords carried by the clay warriors.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 7 (S42E07)

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Follow the paleontologists who are reconstructing this terrifying carnivore, a 53-foot-long behemoth with a huge dorsal sail, scimitar-like claws and superjaws. Bringing together experts in paleontology, geology, climatology and paleobotany, this special brings to life the lost world over which Spinosaurus reigned more than 65 million years ago.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 6 (S42E06)

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When World War I began in 1914, the air forces of the opposing nations consisted of handfuls of rickety biplanes from which pilots occasionally took pot shots at one another with rifles. By 1918, the fighter had become an efficient killing machine with a growing strategic impact on the outcome of the war. With the help of a unique collection of meticulously recreated flying replicas, NOVA traces the story of the designers, engineers, and brave pilots caught up in the race to dominate the skies over the western front.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 5 (S42E05)

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NOVA re-creates key flights, including the world’s first manned voyage on November 21, 1783. A descendant of the Montgolfier brothers, whose exploits fascinated Benjamin Franklin, will join a team to build an accurate replica of the fragile paper and canvas craft using 18th-century tools and materials.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 4 (S42E04)

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As the Ebola epidemic threatens to spiral out of control, NOVA reports from the hot zone, where courageous medical teams struggle to cope with a flood of victims, to labs where scientists are racing to test vaccines and find a cure. "Surviving Ebola" includes chilling first-hand interviews of what it's like to contract — and survive — this terrible affliction.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 3 (S42E03)

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NOVA tells the inside story of the search for Flight MH370 and meets the key players, from all corners of the globe, who have spent months searching for the lost plane. How easy is it to make a plane disappear? Or can new technology guarantee that in the future, nothing will ever be "lost" again?

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 2 (S42E02)

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NOVA goes behind the scenes of the fast-paced world of cryptography to meet the scientists battling to keep our data safe. They are experts in extreme physics, math, and a new field called "ultra-paranoid computing," all working to forge unbreakable codes and build ultra-fast computers. From the sleuths who decoded the world's most advanced cyber weapon to scientists who believe they can store a password in your unconscious brain, NOVA investigates how a new global geek squad is harnessing cutting-edge science—all to stay one step ahead of the hackers.

Watch NOVA season 42 episode 1 (S42E01)

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Diseases that were largely eradicated in the United States a generation ago—whooping cough, measles, mumps—are returning, in part because nervous parents are skipping their children’s shots. NOVA’s “Vaccines—Calling the Shots" takes viewers around the world to track epidemics, explore the science behind vaccinations, hear from parents wrestling with vaccine-related questions, and shed light on the risks of opting out.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 22 (S41E22)

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On June 6, 1944, the Allies launched the biggest armada in history to invade the Normandy beaches and liberate Europe from the Nazis. In less than 24 hours, more than 5,000 ships crossed the English Channel, along with thousands of tanks and landing craft and nearly 200,000 men. Throughout the operation, hundreds of ships sank running the gauntlet of mines and bunkers, creating one of the world's largest underwater archaeological sites. Now, NOVA has exclusive access to a unique collaboration between military historians, archaeologists, and specialist divers to carry out the most extensive survey ever done of the seabed bordering the legendary beachheads. Dive teams, submersibles, and underwater robots will discover and identify key examples of Allied craft that fell victim to German shellfire, mines, and torpedoes, using the latest 3D-mapping tools to plot the relics on the sea floor. Highlighting the ingenious technology that helped the Allies overcome the German defenses, and featuring first-hand accounts from Allied veterans who have returned to the site of this epic battle to share their harrowing stories, "D-Day's Sunken Secrets" unfolds a vivid blow-by-blow account of the tumultuous events of D-Day and reveals how the Allies' intricate planning and advanced technology assured the success of the most ambitious and risky military operation ever launched.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 21 (S41E21)

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Colditz Castle, a notorious prisoner of war camp in Nazi Germany, was supposed to be escape-proof. But in the dark days at the end of World War II, a group of British officers dreamt up the ultimate escape plan: in a secret attic workshop, they constructed a two-man glider out of bed sheets and floorboards. Their plan was to fly to freedom from the roof of the castle, but the war ended before they could put it to the test. Now a crack team of aero engineers and carpenters rebuild the glider in the same attic using the same materials, and they’ll do something the prisoners never got a chance to try: use a bathtub full of concrete to catapult the glider off the roof of the castle. As the hair-raising launch 90 feet up draws near, the program explores the Colditz legend and exposes the secrets of other ingenious and audacious escapes. Then, after a 70-year wait, the team finally finds out if the legendary glider plan would have succeeded.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 20 (S41E20)

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In recent years, an unusual spate of deadly shark attacks has gripped Australia, resulting in five deaths in ten months. At the same time, great white sharks have begun appearing in growing numbers off the beaches of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, not far from the waters where Steven Spielberg filmed the ultimate shark fright film, Jaws. What's behind the mysterious arrival of this apex predator in an area where they've rarely been seen for hundreds of years? Are deadly encounters with tourists inevitable? To separate fact from fear, NOVA teams up with leading shark experts in Australia and the United States to discover the science behind the great white's hunting instincts. Do sharks ever target humans, or is each attack a tragic case of mistaken identity? And can a deeper understanding of shark senses lead scientists to design effective deterrents and help prevent future attacks?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 19 (S41E19)

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What makes an animal smart? What forces of evolution drive brains to become more complex? Many scientists believe the secret lies in our relationships. Throughout the animal kingdom, some of the cleverest creatures—including humans—seem to be those who live in complex social groups, like dolphins, elephants, and apes. Could the skills required to keep track of friend and foe make animals smarter? To find out, NOVA goes inside the social lives of some of the smartest animals on the planet. Off the coast of Florida, we see dolphins team up to catch fish by whipping up a wall of muddy water that drives the meal right into their companions’ waiting mouths. It seems that the dolphins are working together to plan their hunt. But are they really? Biologists go on a quest to decipher the secrets of animal societies, from the seas of the Caribbean to the plains of Africa. Do dolphins and elephants have “language?" Do chimps have a sense of fairness? And are any animals besides ourselves capable of feeling empathy?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 18 (S41E18)

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What is it like to be a dog, a shark, or a bird? Long the subject of human daydreams, this question is now getting serious attention from scientists who study animal senses. The senses define our experience of the world—they shape our minds, and help make us what we are. Humans rely on smell, sight, taste, touch, and sound, but other animals have super-powered versions of these senses, and a few, like electrically-sensitive sharks, even have extra senses we don’t have at all. From a dog who seems to use smell to tell time, to a dolphin who can "see" with his ears, we will discover how animals use their senses in ways we humans can barely imagine. But it’s not just the senses that are remarkable—it's the brains that process them. How does a swallow’s tiny, one-gram brain take in the flood of visual information that enables the bird to whiz within inches of buildings while flying at 40 miles per hour? How does a dog’s mind turn the sight of a hand signal into the happy anticipation of a treat? How has the evolution of the dog—from its wolf ancestors–reshaped its brain? NOVA goes into the minds of animals to “see” the world in an entirely new way.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 17 (S41E17)

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When it comes to intelligence, we humans are clearly the most gifted animals around. But what make us so special? Is it our ability to make and use tools? To solve complex problems? Or plan for the future? It might seem that way, but today, researchers are discovering other creatures with impressive brains that have mastered all those skills. Surprisingly, many are bird brains. Crows bend and shape sticks to create custom-made spears for hunting grubs, and they are just one among a growing list of bird species whose impressive problem-solving abilities are shocking scientists and revolutionizing our understanding of animal intelligence. At the head of the class, we meet animals like Muppet, a cockatoo with a talent for picking locks; 007, a wild crow on a mission to solve an eight-step puzzle for the first time ever; and Bran, a tame raven who can solve a puzzle box so quickly that his performance has to be captured with high-speed photography. But are these skills really evidence of high intelligence, or just parlor tricks, the result of training and instinct? To find out, NOVA tests the limits of some of the planet’s brainiest animals, searching for the secrets of a problem-solving mind.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 16 (S41E16)

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Over the last few centuries we have shot, trapped, and skinned the predators that formerly thrived at the top of the food chain in the wild. Wild bears, wolves, and big cats are all in retreat, and a growing number of scientists are discovering that by eliminating predators, we have changed the environment. Removing predators from the wild has thrown ecosystems off-kilter, triggering domino effects that scientists are just beginning to understand. In "Wild Predator Invasion," NOVA follows scientists who are trying a simple but controversial solution: returning apex predators—like wolves, bears, and panthers—to their natural environments. Can these newly reintroduced predators restore the natural balance of their ecosystems without threatening the humans who live among them?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 15 (S41E15)

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The dome that crowns Florence’s great cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore—the Duomo—is a towering masterpiece of Renaissance ingenuity and an enduring source of mystery. Still the largest masonry dome on earth after more than six centuries, it is taller than the Statue of Liberty and weighs as much as an average cruise ship. Historians and engineers have long debated how its secretive architect, Filippo Brunelleschi, managed to keep the dome perfectly aligned and symmetrical as the sides rose and converged toward the center, 40 stories above the cathedral floor. His laborers toiled without safety nets, applying novel, untried methods. Over 4 million bricks might collapse at any moment—and we still don’t understand how Brunelleschi prevented it. To test the latest theories, a team of U.S. master bricklayers will help build a unique experimental model Duomo using period techniques. Will it stay intact during the final precarious stages of closing over the top of the dome?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 14 (S41E14)

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Beneath the streets of Rome lies a city of the dead known as the Catacombs—a labyrinth of tunnels, hundreds of miles long, lined with the neatly laid out tombs of the citizens of ancient Rome. Here, in 2002, maintenance workers fixing a broken water main stumbled upon a previously unknown burial chamber like none other in the complex. It was a mass grave of hundreds of bodies spread across six roughly carved caverns, locked away for nearly 2000 years. Who were these people? And can we discover, after all these centuries, what killed them? Could they be Christian martyrs massacred by the Emperor? Or were they felled by a deadly plague? In “Roman Catacomb Mystery,” NOVA’s forensic investigation follows a trail of ancient clues to uncover new secrets of life, death, and disease in the heyday of a mighty empire.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 13 (S41E13)

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In the rolling hills of Ireland's County Tipperary, a laborer harvesting peat from a dried-up bog spots the remnants of a corpse and stops his machine just in time, revealing a headless torso almost perfectly preserved and stained dark brown by the bog. Archeologists recognize the corpse as one of Europe's rare bog bodies: prehistoric corpses flung into marshes with forensic clues often suggesting execution or human sacrifice. The corpse will eventually be dated to the Bronze Age, over 3,000 years ago. Many of these were victims of shocking violence, showing evidence of axe blows, hanging, and stab wounds. Like a crime thriller, NOVA follows archaeologists and forensic experts in their methodical hunt for clues to the identity and the circumstances of this and other violent deaths of bog body victims. A new theory emerges that they are those of ritually murdered kings, gruesomely slain to assure the fertility of land and people. NOVA’s ancient detective story opens a tantalizing window on the strange beliefs of Europe's long vanished prehistoric peoples.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 12 (S41E12)

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It was the strongest cyclone to hit land in recorded history. On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Haiyan slammed into the Philippines, whipping the low-lying and densely-populated islands with 200 mph winds and sending a two-story-high storm surge flooding into homes, schools, and hospitals. It wiped villages off the map and devastated cities, including the hard-hit provincial capital Tacloban. Estimates count more than 5,000 dead and millions homeless. What made Haiyan so destructive? Meteorologists charged with tracking Pacific storms reveal why the Pacific is such fertile ground for cyclones, and NOVA’s film crew documents how conditions dramatically deteriorated in the storm’s aftermath, as impassable roads and shuttered gas stations paralyzed the critical relief effort, leaving food, water, and medicine to pile up at the airport. Disaster preparedness experts scramble to understand why the Philippines was so vulnerable. As climate change and sea level rise threaten millions of the world’s most impoverished people with stronger, and perhaps more frequent, storms, how can we prepare for the next monster typhoon?

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NOVA investigates the technology behind the World War One Zeppelin bombing campaigns, both the airships themselves and the weapons used to try to bring them down.

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It’s a golden age for planet hunters: NASA's Kepler mission has identified more than 3,500 potential planets orbiting stars beyond our Sun. Some of them, like a planet called Kepler-22b, might even be able to harbor life. How did we come upon this distant planet?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 9 (S41E09)

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The asteroid that exploded over Siberia—injuring more than 1,000 and damaging buildings in six cities—was a shocking reminder that Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting range. From the width of a football field to the size of a small city, these space rocks have the potential to be killers. In a collision with Earth, they could set off deadly blast waves, raging fires and colossal tidal waves. But some audacious entrepreneurs look up at asteroids and see payday, not doomsday. Some asteroids are loaded with billions of dollars’ worth of elements like iron, nickel, and platinum. NASA is planning an ambitious mission to return samples from a potentially hazardous asteroid, and would-be asteroid miners are dreaming up their own program to scout for potentially profitable asteroids. Will asteroids turn out to be our economic salvation—or instruments of extinction?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 8 (S41E08)

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Between the blue sky above and the infinite blackness beyond lies a frontier that scientists have only just begun to investigate. In "At the Edge of Space," NOVA takes viewers on a spectacular exploration of the Earth-space boundary that's home to some of nature's most puzzling and alluring phenomena: the shimmering aurora, streaking meteors, and fleeting flashes that shoot upwards from thunderclouds, known as sprites. Only discovered in 1989, sprites have eluded capture because they exist for a mere split-second—40-times faster than an eye blink. NOVA rides with scientists in a high-flying weather observation plane on a hunt for sprites, finally snaring them in 3D video and gaining vital clues to unraveling their mystery. Combining advanced video technology with stunning footage shot from the International Space Station, "At the Edge of Space" probes the boundary zone and offers an entirely new perspective on our home planet.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 7 (S41E07)

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For decades, the assassination of John F. Kennedy has fueled dark rumors of conspiracies and mishandled evidence. Now, fifty years later, NOVA asks: Could modern investigators do better? We’ll see how state-of-the art forensic tools would be applied to the investigation were it to happen today. At the same time, NOVA takes a critical look at contemporary cases, like the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, to reveal how charges of evidence mishandling and human error can mar even scientifically sophisticated detective work.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 6 (S41E06)

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The world has always been a dangerous place, so how do we increase our odds of survival? In "Making Stuff Safer," David Pogue explores the cutting-edge research of scientists and engineers who want to keep us out of harm’s way. Some are countering the threat of natural disasters with new firefighting materials and safer buildings. Others are at work on technologies to thwart terrorist attacks. A next-generation vaccine will save millions from deadly disease. And innovations like smarter cars and better sports gear will reduce the risk of everyday activities. We’ll never eliminate danger—but science and technology are making stuff safer.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 5 (S41E05)

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Cold is the new hot in this brave new world. For centuries we've fought it, shunned it, and huddled against it. Cold has always been the enemy of life, but now it may hold the key to a new generation of science and technology that will improve our lives. In "Making Stuff Colder," David Pogue explores the frontiers of cold science from saving the lives of severe trauma patients to ultracold physics, where bizarre new properties of matter are the norm and the basis of new technologies like levitating trains and quantum computers.

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What happens when scientists open up nature's toolbox? In "Making Stuff Wilder," David Pogue explores bold new innovations inspired by the Earth's greatest inventor, life itself. From robotic "mules" and "cheetahs" for the military, to fabrics born out of fish slime, host David Pogue travels the globe to find the world’s wildest new inventions and technologies. It is a journey that sees today's microbes turned into tomorrow’s metallurgists, viruses building batteries, and ideas that change not just the stuff we make, but the way we make our stuff. As we develop our own new technologies, what can we learn from billions of years of nature’s research?

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 3 (S41E03)

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Ever since humans stood on two feet we have had the basic urge to go faster. But are there physical limits to how fast we can go? David Pogue wants to find out, and in "Making Stuff Faster," he’ll investigate everything from electric muscle cars and the America’s cup sailboat to bicycles that smash speed records. Along the way, he finds that speed is more than just getting us from point A to B, it's also about getting things done in less time. From boarding a 737 to pushing the speed light travels, Pogue's quest for ultimate speed limits takes him to unexpected places where he’ll come face-to-face with the final frontiers of speed.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 2 (S41E02)

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In October 2012, superstorm Sandy cut a path of devastation across the Caribbean and the East Coast, killing hundreds and doing tens of billions of dollars in damage. Now, one year after Sandy’s deadly strike, NOVA follows up on its 2012 film “Inside the Megastorm” with a fresh investigation of the critical questions raised by this historic storm: Was Hurricane Sandy a freak combination of weather systems? Or are hurricanes increasing in intensity due to a changing climate and rising seas? How can we gird cities against future storm surges? Join NOVA on a trip to the Netherlands, a country which has combined extraordinary engineering with natural landscape restoration to protect its low-lying cities from the sea. And meet climate scientists who are racing to understand how a warming world will affect extreme—but unpredictable—weather phenomena like hurricanes and tornadoes.

Watch NOVA season 41 episode 1 (S41E01)

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NOVA kicks off the fall season with a return to Ground Zero to witness the final chapter in an epic story of engineering, innovation, and the perseverance of the human spirit. “Ground Zero Supertower” examines the new skyscraper, One World Trade Center, rising up 104 stories and 1,776 feet from the site where the Twin Towers once stood. NOVA also goes underground to see another engineering marvel taking shape here: the construction of the National September 11 Memorial Museum that will house almost a thousand artifacts from that devastating day. In this update of NOVA’s Emmy-nominated special “Engineering Ground Zero,” which featured extraordinary behind-the-scenes access to the struggles of the engineers and architects working at 1 WTC and the 9/11 Memorial, NOVA goes inside the construction of the tower’s final floors and the installation of its soaring, 408-foot spire and beacon.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 20 (S40E20)

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On May 20, 2013, a ferocious EF5 tornado over a mile wide tore through Moore, Oklahoma, inflicting 24 deaths and obliterating entire neighborhoods. It was the third time an exceptionally violent tornado had struck the city in 14 years. Yet predicting when and where these killer storms will hit still poses a huge challenge. Why was 2011—the worst ever recorded tornado season that left 158 dead in Joplin, Missouri—followed by the quietest ever year of activity prior to the Moore disaster? Can improved radar and warning technology explain why so many fewer died in Moore than in Joplin? And will tornadoes get worse as Earth's climate heats up? In this NOVA special, we meet scientists in the front ranks of the battle to understand these extreme weather events. We also meet storm survivors whose lives have been upended and learn how we can protect ourselves and our communities for the uncertain future.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 19 (S40E19)

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NOVA follows the manhunt for the 2013 Boston Marathon bombers examining the role modern technology played in the case.

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In the wake of the catastrophic asteroid impact believed to have wiped out the dinosaurs, Australia was set adrift on a lonely voyage across southern seas. With host Richard Smith, NOVA travels the walkabout continent to uncover how it became the strange land it is today. In this final episode, "Strange Creatures," NOVA traces the last 65 million years, revealing the events that shaped the Australia we know today. Prehistoric jungles retreated, replaced by eucalypt forests, grasslands, and deserts. When humans first arrived, giant marsupials dominated the land and the Great Barrier Reef was yet to form. This is a tale of calamity and conquest; how a conspiracy of climate, biology, and geology shaped the Earth we now call home.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 17 (S40E17)

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"Monsters" begins Down Under at the dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs. Host Richard Smith comes face-to-face with the previously unknown reptilian rulers of prehistoric Australia. NOVA resurrects the giants that stalked the Great Southern Land and discovers that some of these animals were among the largest ever to have walked the Earth. Others were some of the most dangerous. In the dry desert heart, scientists unearth an ancient inland ocean full of sea monsters. Opal fossils of some of these beasts paint a colorful picture of the exotic seascape, where long-necked plesiosaurs snacked on shelled creatures that grew as large as truck tires. The most fearsome was Kronosaurus, with a skull twice as long as T. rex. But reptiles didn't have the world all to themselves. Mammals like the enigmatic platypus lived alongside them, ready for their moment in the sun.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 16 (S40E16)

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How did life storm the beaches and dominate planet Earth? Ancient Australian fossils offer clues in "Life Explodes." Half a billion years ago, Australia was still part of the super-continent Gondwana. The oceans were teeming with weird and wonderful animals, but the world above the waves remained an almost lifeless wasteland. All that was about to change, though. Host Richard Smith introduces Earth's forgotten pioneers: the scuttling arthropod armies that invaded the shores and the waves of green revolutionaries whose battle for the light pushed plant life across the face of a barren continent. Evolution continued underwater as well, with armor-plated fish experimenting with teeth, jaws, sex, and lungs. NOVA's prehistoric adventure continues with four-legged animals walking onto dry land—and the planet poised for disaster.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 15 (S40E15)

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Hidden in the red hills of western Australia are clues to the mysteries of when the Earth was born, how life first arose, and how it transformed the planet.

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In 1900, Greek sponge divers discovered a 2,000 year-old shipwreck containing a geared bronze mechanism whose workings have puzzled scientists for decades. New hi-tech imaging has revealed that this clockwork machine was the world's first computer.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 13 (S40E13)

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On February 15, 2013, a 7,000-ton asteroid crashed into the Earth's atmosphere over Russia with the power of 30 Hiroshima bombs. Within days, NOVA crews joined impact scientists in Russia as they hunted for clues about the meteor's origin and makeup.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 12 (S40E12)

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What makes a person walk into a theater or a church or a classroom full of students and open fire? What combination of circumstances compels a human being to commit the most inhuman of crimes? Can science in any way help us understand these horrific events and provide any clues as to how to prevent them in the future? As the nation tries to understand the tragic events at Newtown, NOVA correspondent Miles O’Brien separates fact from fiction, investigating new theories that the most destructive rampage killers are driven most of all, not by the urge to kill, but the wish to die. Could suicide–and the desire to go out in a media-fueled blaze of glory–be the main motivation? How much can science tell us about the violent brain? Most importantly, can we recognize dangerous minds in time—and stop the next Newtown?

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 11 (S40E11)

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"Earth From Space" is a groundbreaking two-hour special that reveals a spectacular new space-based vision of our planet. Produced in extensive consultation with NASA scientists, NOVA takes data from earth-observing satellites and transforms it into dazzling visual sequences, each one exposing the intricate and surprising web of forces that sustains life on earth. Viewers witness how dust blown from the Sahara fertilizes the Amazon; how a vast submarine "waterfall" off Antarctica helps drive ocean currents around the world; and how the sun's heating up of the southern Atlantic gives birth to a colossally powerful hurricane. From the microscopic world of water molecules vaporizing over the ocean to the magnetic field that is bigger than Earth itself, the show reveals the astonishing beauty and complexity of our dynamic planet.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 10 (S40E10)

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3,600-year-old reliefs in Egyptian tombs and temples depict pharaohs and warriors proudly riding into battle on horse-drawn chariots. Some historians claim that the chariot launched a technological and strategic revolution, and was the secret weapon behind Egypt's greatest era of conquest known as the New Kingdom. But was the Egyptian chariot really a revolutionary design? How decisive a role did it play in the bloody battles of the ancient world? In "Building Pharaoh's Chariot," a team of archaeologists, engineers, woodworkers, and horse trainers join forces to build and test two highly accurate replicas of Egyptian royal chariots. They discover astonishingly advanced features, including spoked wheels, springs, shock absorbers, anti-roll bars, and even a convex-shaped rear mirror, leading one of them to compare the level of design to the engineering standards of 1930's-era Buicks! By driving our pair of replicas to their limits in the desert outside Cairo, NOVA's experts test the claim that the chariot marks a crucial turning point in ancient military history.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 9 (S40E09)

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In the aftermath of his 1927 solo transatlantic flight, Colonel Charles Augustus Lindbergh–the Lone Eagle–became the most famous human being on earth. And when he and his lovely wife Anne produced an adorable baby son, Charlie, an eager press quickly dubbed him Little Lindy or sometimes just the Eaglet. But on the evening of March 1, 1932 Lucky Lindy's luck ran out. Bold kidnappers snatched his baby from the family home near Hopewell, New Jersey, while everyone in the house was awake. Negotiations with the kidnappers stretched out for weeks. But Little Charlie never came back. His body was discovered not five miles from Hopewell. Now, NOVA is reopening one of the most intriguing, grisly, and confounding crime mysteries of all time as a team of expert investigators employ state-of-the-art forensic and behavioral science techniques in an effort to determine what really happened to Lindbergh's baby and why.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 8 (S40E08)

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Drones. These unmanned flying robots–some as large as jumbo jets, others as small as birds–do things straight out of science fiction. Much of what it takes to get these robotic airplanes to fly, sense, and kill has remained secret. But now, with rare access to drone engineers and those who fly them for the U.S. military, NOVA reveals the amazing technologies that make drones so powerful as we see how a remotely-piloted drone strike looks and feels from inside the command center. From cameras that can capture every detail of an entire city at a glance to swarming robots that can make decisions on their own to giant air frames that can stay aloft for days on end, drones are changing our relationship to war, surveillance, and each other. And it's just the beginning. Discover the cutting edge technologies that are propelling us toward a new chapter in aviation history as NOVA gets ready for "Rise of the Drones.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 7 (S40E07)

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Examining evidence about Neanderthals that sheds light on the hominids, which died off some 30,000 years ago. Included: geneticist Svante PÀÀbo's 2010 reconstruction of the Neanderthal genome, which posits that modern humans and Neanderthals interbred at some point in the distant past.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 6 (S40E06)

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In April, 2010 the eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano turned much of Europe into an ash-strewn no-fly zone, stranding millions of travelers. But was Eyjafjallajökull just the start? Now, an even more threatening Icelandic volcano, Katla, has begun to swell and grumble. Two more giants, Hekla and Laki, could erupt without warning. Iceland is a ticking time bomb: When it blows, the consequences could be global. As CGI takes us inside these geological monsters, we meet atmospheric scientists who are working to understand just how devastating an eruption could be—not just for air travel but for the global food supply and for Earth's climate.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 5 (S40E05)

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Was Hurricane Sandy a freak combination of weather systems? Or are hurricanes increasing in intensity due to a warming climate? How did this perfect storm make search and rescue so dangerous? "Inside the Megastorm" takes viewers moment by moment through Hurricane Sandy, its impacts, and the future of storm protection. Through first person accounts from those who survived, and from experts and scientists, "Inside the Megastorm" gives scientific context to a new breed of storms.

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Why go back to Mars? Far from dead, Mars holds untold potential. Nearly half a century of Mars exploration has yielded tantalizing clues that Mars may once have harbored life—and may harbor it still. The extraordinary landing of a revolutionary rover named Curiosity—which successfully touched down inside the Gale Crater—means we have wheels down on the planet once again, in the form of the most sophisticated robot ever to rove the Mars surface. Will NASA's bold mission and this marvel of technology answer some of our biggest questions and usher in a new golden age of exploration? NOVA goes behind the scenes on NASA’s quest to solve the riddles of the red planet.

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A remote, bleak speck of rock in the middle of the Pacific, Easter Island, or Rapa Nui, has mystified the world ever since the first Europeans arrived in 1722. How and why did the ancient islanders build and move nearly 900 giant statues or moai, weighing up to 86 tons? And how did they transform a presumed paradise into a treeless wasteland, bringing ruin upon their island and themselves? NOVA explores controversial recent claims that challenge decades of previous thinking about the islanders, who have been accused of everything from ecocide to cannibalism. Among the radical new theories is that the islanders used ropes to "walk" the statues upright, like moving a fridge. With the help of an accurate 15-ton replica statue, a NOVA team sets out to test this high-risk, seemingly unlikely theory—serving up plenty of action and surprises in this fresh investigation of one of the ancient world's most intriguing enigmas.

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There is a startling gap between the glamorous television world of “CSI” and the gritty reality of the forensic crime lab. With few established scientific standards, no central oversight, and poor regulation of examiners, forensics in the U.S. is in a state of crisis. In "Forensics on Trial", NOVA investigates how modern forensics, including the analysis of fingerprints, bite marks, ballistics, hair, and tool marks, can send innocent men and women to prison—and sometimes even to death row. Shockingly, of more than 250 inmates exonerated by DNA testing over the last decade, more than 50 percent of the wrongful convictions stemmed from invalid or improperly handled forensic science. With the help of vivid recreations of actual trials and cases, NOVA will investigate today’s shaky state of crime science as well as cutting-edge solutions that could help investigators put the real criminals behind bars.

Watch NOVA season 40 episode 1 (S40E01)

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The Vikings were among the fiercest warriors of all time. Yet only a select few carried the ultimate weapon of their era: the feared Ulfberht sword. Fashioned using a process that would remain unknown to the Vikings’ rivals for centuries, the Ulfberht was a revolutionary high-tech tool as well as a work of art. Considered one of the greatest swords ever made, it remains a fearsome weapon more than a millennium after it last saw battle. But how did Viking sword makers design and build the Ulfberht, and what was its role in history? Now, NOVA uses cutting edge science and old-fashioned detective work to reconstruct the Ulfberht and finally unravel the "Secrets of the Viking Sword."

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 19 (S39E19)

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It contains 99.9 percent of all the matter in our solar system and sheds hot plasma at nearly a million miles an hour. The temperature at its core is a staggering 27 million degrees Fahrenheit. It convulses, it blazes, it sings. You know it as the sun. Scientists know it as one of the most amazing physics laboratories in the universe. Now, with the help of new spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes, scientists are seeing the sun as they never have before and even recreating what happens at its very center in labs here on Earth. Their work will help us understand aspects of the sun that have puzzled scientists for decades. But more critically, it may help us predict and track solar storms that have the power to zap our power grid, shut down telecommunications, and ground global air travel for days, weeks, or even longer. Such storms have happened before—but never in the modern era of satellite communication. "Secrets of the Sun" reveals a bright new dawn in our understanding of our nearest star—one that might help keep our planet from going dark.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 18 (S39E18)

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Twenty million passengers embark on cruises each year, vacationing in deluxe "floating cities" that offer everything from swimming pools to shopping malls to ice skating rinks. And the ships just keep getting bigger: The average cruise ship has doubled in size in just the last ten years. Some engineers fear that these towering behemoths are dangerously unstable, and the recent tragedy of the Costa Concordia has raised new questions about their safety. Now, NOVA brings together marine engineering and safety experts to reconstruct the events that led up to famous cruise disasters, including the ill-fated Concordia, the Sea Diamond, and the Oceans.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 17 (S39E17)

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In April 2011, the worst tornado outbreak in decades left a trail of destruction across the U.S., killing more than 360 people. Why was there such an extreme outbreak? How do such outbreaks form? With modern warning systems, why did so many die? Is our weather getting more extreme—and, if so, how bad will it get? In this NOVA special, we meet scientists striving to understand the forces at work behind last year's outbreak. Could their work improve tornado prediction in the future? We also meet people whose lives have been upended by these extreme weather events and learn how we all can protect ourselves and our communities for the future.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 16 (S39E16)

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Where do nature’s building blocks, called the elements, come from? They’re the hidden ingredients of everything in our world, from the carbon in our bodies to the metals in our smartphones. To unlock their secrets, David Pogue, the lively host of NOVA’s popular "Making Stuff" series and technology correspondent of The New York Times, spins viewers through the world of weird, extreme chemistry: the strongest acids, the deadliest poisons, the universe’s most abundant elements, and the rarest of the rare—substances cooked up in atom smashers that flicker into existence for only fractions of a second.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 15 (S39E15)

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What will it mean when most of us can afford to have the information in our DNA—all three billion chemical letters of it—read, stored, and available for analysis? In "Cracking Your Genetic Code," NOVA reveals that we stand on the verge of a revolution. We meet cancer patients returned to robust health and a cystic fibrosis sufferer breathing easily because scientists have been able to pinpoint and neutralize the genetic abnormalities underlying their conditions. What are the moral dilemmas raised by the new technology? Will it help or hurt us to know our genetic destiny? What if such information falls into the hands of insurance companies, employers, and prospective mates? One thing is for certain: The new era of personalized, gene-based medicine is relevant to everyone. Soon, all of us may be deciding whether to join the ranks of the DNA generation.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 14 (S39E14)

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This is the incredible story of Trishna and Krishna, twin girls born joined at the head. Abandoned shortly after birth at an orphanage in Bangladesh, they had little chance of survival, until they were saved and taken to Australia by an aid worker. After two years battling for life, the twins are ready for a series of delicate operations that will prepare them for the ultimate challenge: a marathon separation surgery that will allow them to live truly separate lives. Since the beginning, surgeons knew there was no guarantee of survival for either of the girls—but without surgery there was no hope at all. With exclusive access to this extraordinary human and medical drama, our cameras have been with Trishna and Krishna and their caregivers at each moment of their journey.

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In a race against developers in the Rocky Mountains, archeologists uncover a unique fossil site packed with astonishingly well-preserved bones of mammoths, mastodons, and other giant extinct beasts. The discovery opens a highly focused window on the vanished world of the Ice Age in North America.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 12 (S39E12)

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In October 2007, a striking portrait of a young woman in Renaissance dress made world news headlines. Originally sold nine years before for around $20,000, the portrait is now thought to be an undiscovered masterwork by Leonardo da Vinci worth more than $100 million. How did cutting-edge imaging analysis help tie the portrait to Leonardo? NOVA meets a new breed of experts who are approaching "cold case" art mysteries as if they were crime scenes, determined to discover "who committed the art." And it follows art sleuths as they deploy new techniques to combat the multibillion-dollar criminal market in stolen and fraudulent art.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 11 (S39E11)

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During World War II, Hitler’s scientists developed terrifying new weapons of mass destruction. Alarmed by rumors of advanced rockets and missiles, Allied intelligence recruited a team of brilliant minds from British universities and Hollywood studios to a country house near London. Here, they secretly pored over millions of air photos shot at great risk over German territory by specially converted, high-flying Spitfires. Peering at the photos through 3D stereoscopes, the team spotted telltale clues that revealed hidden Nazi rocket bases. The photos led to devastating Allied bombing raids that dealt crucial setbacks to the German rocket program and helped ensure the success of the D-Day landings. With 3D graphics that recreate exactly what the photo spies saw, NOVA tells the suspenseful, previously untold story of air photo intelligence that played a vital role in defeating the Nazis.

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In 1943 a squadron of Lancaster bombers staged one of the most audacious raids in military history: destroying two gigantic dams in Germany’s industrial heartland and cutting the water supply to arms factories. Their secret weapon? A revolutionary bouncing bomb invented by British engineer Barnes Wallis. Wallis and the pilots of 617 Squadron—a lively mix of Britons, Australians, Americans, and Canadians—were hailed as heroes who dealt a mighty blow to the German war machine. Now, NOVA recreates the extreme engineering challenges faced by Wallis and the pilots. A crack team of experts, including dam engineers, explosives specialists, mechanics, and aircrew, steps into the shoes of the "dambusters" and attempts to overcome each of the obstacles the original team faced. They must adapt a vintage World War II DC-4 to carry a bomb the size of an oil drum, train to drop it from a dangerously low altitude in pitch darkness, and get it to bounce over obstacles and onto the target, a scale model the German dam struck by the original dambusters. Can they succeed in destroying the dam and unraveling the mysteries of the one-of-a-kind bouncing bomb?

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 9 (S39E09)

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Millions of people around the world live in the shadow of active volcanoes. Under constant threat of massive volcanic eruptions, their homes and their lives are daily at risk from these sleeping giants. From Japan’s Mount Fuji to the "Sleeping Giant" submerged beneath Naples to the Yellowstone "supervolcano" in the United States, we will travel with scientists from around the world who are at work on these sites, attempting to discover how likely these volcanoes are to erupt, when it might happen, and exactly how deadly they could prove to be.

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Hard as it is to swallow, cutting-edge theories are suggesting that our universe may not be the only universe. Instead, it may be just one of an infinite number of worlds that make up the multiverse. In this show, Brian Greene takes us on a tour of this brave new theory at the frontier of physics, explaining why scientists believe it's true and showing what some of these alternate realities might be like. Some universes may be almost indistinguishable from our own; others may contain variations of all of us, where we exist but with different families, careers, and life stories. In still others, reality may be so radically different from ours as to be unrecognizable. Brian Greene reveals why this radical new picture of the cosmos is getting serious attention from scientists. It won't be easy to prove, but if it's right, our understanding of space, time, and our place in the universe will never be the same.

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Join Brian Greene on a wild ride into the weird realm of quantum physics, which governs the universe on the tiniest of scales. Greene brings quantum mechanics to life in a nightclub like no other, where objects pop in and out of existence, and things over here can affect others over there, instantaneously and without anything crossing the space between them. A century ago, during the initial shots in the quantum revolution, the best minds of a generation—including Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr—squared off in a battle for the soul of physics. How could the rules of the quantum world, which work so well to describe the behavior of individual atoms and their components, conflict so dramatically with the everyday rules that govern people, planets, and galaxies? Quantum mechanics may be counterintuitive, but it's one of the most successful theories in the history of science, making predictions that have been confirmed to better than one part in a billion, while also launching the technological advances at the heart of modern life, like computers and cell phones. But even today, even with such profound successes, the debate still rages over what quantum mechanics implies for the true nature of reality.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 6 (S39E06)

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Time. We waste it, save it, kill it, make it. The world runs on it. Yet, ask physicists what time actually is, and the answer might shock you: They have no idea. Even more surprising, the deep sense we have of time passing from present to past may be nothing more than an illusion. How can our understanding of something so familiar be so wrong? In search of answers, Brian Greene takes us on the ultimate time-traveling adventure, hurtling 50 years into the future before stepping into a wormhole to travel back to the past. Along the way, he will reveal a new way of thinking about time in which moments past, present, and future—from the reign of T. rex to the birth of your great-great-grandchildren—exist all at once. This journey will bring us all the way back to the Big Bang, where physicists think the ultimate secrets of time may be hidden. You'll never look at your wristwatch the same way again.

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Space. It separates you from me, one galaxy from the next, and atoms from each other. It is everywhere in the universe. But to most of us, space is nothing, an empty void. Well, it turns out space is not what it seems. From the passenger seat of a New York cab driving near the speed of light to a pool hall where billiard tables do fantastical things, Brian Greene reveals space as a dynamic fabric that can stretch, twist, warp, and ripple under the influence of gravity. Stranger still is a newly discovered ingredient of space that actually makes up 70 percent of the universe. Physicists call it dark energy because while they know it's out there, driving space to expand ever more quickly, they have no idea what it is. Probing space on the smallest scales only makes the mysteries multiply. Down there, things are going on that physicists today can barely fathom—forces powerful enough to generate whole universes. To top it off, some of the strangest places in space, black holes, have led scientists to propose that like the hologram on your credit card, space may just be a projection of a deeper two-dimensional reality, taking place on a distant surface that surrounds us. Space, far from being empty, is filled with some of the deepest mysteries of our time.

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He’s been dead for more than 5,000 years and poked, prodded, and probed by scientists for the last 20. Yet Ötzi the Iceman, the famous mummified corpse pulled from a glacier in the Italian Alps, continues to keep many secrets. Now, through an autopsy like none other, scientists will attempt to unravel mysteries about this ancient mummy, revealing not only the details of Ötzi’s death but also an entire way of life. How did people live during Ötzi’s time, the Copper Age? What did they eat? What diseases did they cope with? Join NOVA as we defrost the ultimate time capsule—the 5,000-year-old man

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Take a spectacular trip to distant realms of our solar system to discover where secret forms of life may lie hidden. Combining the latest telescope images with dazzling animation, this program immerses audiences in the sights and sounds of alien worlds, while top astrobiologists explain how these places are changing how we think about the potential for life in our solar system. We used to think our neighboring planets and moons were fairly boring—mostly cold, dead rocks where life could never take hold. Today, however, the solar system looks wilder than we ever imagined.

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The earthquake that hit the northern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011, was recorded at magnitude 9.0 the worst ever recorded in Japan. It generated an unprecedented tsunami, obliterating coastal villages and towns in a matter of minutes. In some areas, the tsunami climbed above 100 feet in height and traveled miles inland. Amazingly, amateur and professional photographers captured it all on video, including remarkable tales of human survival, as ordinary citizens became heroes in a drama they never could have imagined. As the waves rush in, a daughter struggles to help her elderly mother ascend their rooftop to safety; a man climbs onto an overpass just as the wave overtakes his car. These never-before-seen stories are captured in video and retold after the fact by the survivors who reveal what they were thinking as they made their life-saving decisions. Their stories provide lessons for how we should all act in the face of life-threatening disasters.

Watch NOVA season 39 episode 1 (S39E01)

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To commemorate the 10th anniversary of 9/11, NOVA presents an epic story of engineering, innovation, and the perseverance of the human spirit. With extraordinary access granted by The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, “Engineering Ground Zero” follows the five-year construction of One World Trade Center (1 WTC) and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 18 (S38E18)

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Would you care to match wits with a dog, an octopus, a dolphin, or a parrot? You may think twice after watching the segments in this NOVA scienceNOW episode. While we may not be ready to send pets to Harvard, the remarkable footage and findings presented here demonstrate that many animal species are much smarter than we assume and in ways we had never imagined.

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Can emerging technology defeat global warming? The United States has invested tens of billions of dollars in clean energy projects as our leaders try to save our crumbling economy and our poisoned planet in one bold, green stroke. Are we finally on the brink of a green-energy "power surge," or is it all a case of too little, too late? From solar panel factories in China to a carbon capture-and-storage facility in the Sahara desert to massive wind and solar installations in the United States, NOVA travels the globe to reveal the surprising technologies that just might turn back the clock on climate change. NOVA will focus on the latest and greatest innovations, including everything from artificial trees to green reboots of familiar technologies like coal and nuclear energy. Can our technology, which helped create this problem, now solve it?

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 16 (S38E16)

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In its worst crisis since World War II, Japan faces disaster on an epic scale: a death toll likely in the tens of thousands, massive destruction of homes and businesses, shortages of water and power, and the specter of nuclear meltdown. With exclusive footage, NOVA captures the unfolding human drama and offers a clear-headed investigation of what triggered the earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent nuclear crisis. Can science and technology ever prevent devastation in the face of overwhelmingly powerful forces of nature?

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 15 (S38E15)

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Over the millennia, thousands of creatures have developed that most sophisticated of biological and chemical weapons: venom. These complex chemicals can scramble your brain signals, paralyze your muscles, puncture your blood cells, even begin digesting you from within. But nature's most potent toxins might also contain the keys to a new generation of advanced drugs. Such drugs might help doctors treat heart attacks, cancer, diabetes, and other serious illnesses. Follow NOVA crews as they join scientists on a dangerous quest to track down and capture the world's most venomous animals - to find out both how they can kill us, and how they can save us.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 14 (S38E14)

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On June 1, 2009, Flight AF447, an Air France Airbus A330 flying from Rio de Janeiro to Paris, disappeared over the Atlantic Ocean with the loss of all 228 lives. How could a state-of-the-art airliner with elaborate electronic safety and navigation features and a faultless safety record simply fall out of the sky? NOVA assembles a team of seasoned pilots, engineers, and safety experts to examine the evidence that emerged in the weeks following this horrific disaster. What led Flight 447's crew to fly straight into a towering thunderstorm? With expert testimony, satellite weather images, and messages transmitted by the doomed plane's computer system, NOVA pieces together the fatal chain of events.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 13 (S38E13)

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Augmenting human intelligence is a lot tougher than it looks, and the promise of "Hal" from 2001: A Space Odyssey is still just a fantasy. But scientists are edging closer with machines like "Watson," an IBM computing system that is gearing up for a first-of-its-kind challenge: taking on human contestants on the game show Jeopardy! With a brain the size of 2,400 home computers and a database of about 10 million documents, will Watson be able to compute its way to victory? Given the complexity of human language, could any computer truly understand it? It remains to be seen if this amalgam of circuits and silicon can really take us closer to the dream of a fully developed artificial intelligence, a truly "conscious" machine. Win or lose, the difficulty of mimicking the human thought process with software is showing artificial-intelligence researchers that there's more than one way to be "intelligent."

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"Making Stuff: Smarter" looks at materials that respond to their environments and even learn, such as an airplane wing that changes shape as it flies. Scientists are turning to nature in developing such "smart" stuff. Sharkskin, for instance, has inspired a substance that, when sprayed in hospitals, could eliminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria. David Pogue visits a scientist who has even created a material that can render objects invisible. "Smarter" concludes with a vision of the ultimate in "life-like" stuff: programmable matter that could create a duplicate of a human being.

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Can innovations in materials science help clean up our world? In "Making Stuff: Cleaner," David Pogue explores the rapidly developing science and business of clean energy and examines alternative ways to generate it, store it, and distribute it. Is hydrogen the way to go? What about lithium batteries? Does this solve an energy problem or create a new dependency? Pogue investigates the latest developments in bio-based fuels and in harnessing solar energy for our cars, homes, and industry in a program full of the stuff of a sustainable future.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 10 (S38E10)

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How small can we go? Could we one day have robots taking "fantastic voyages" in our bodies to kill rogue cells? The triumphs of tiny are seen all around us in the Information Age: transistors, microchips, laptops, cell phones. Now, David Pogue takes NOVA viewers to an even smaller world in "Making Stuff: Smaller," examining the latest in high-powered nano-circuits and micro-robots that may one day hold the key to saving lives.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 9 (S38E09)

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What is the strongest material in the world? Is it steel, Kevlar, carbon nanotubes, or something entirely new? NOVA kicks off the four-part series "Making Stuff" with a quest for the world's strongest substances. Host David Pogue takes a look at what defines strength, examining everything from steel cables to mollusks to a toucan's beak. Pogue travels from the deck of a U.S. naval aircraft carrier to a demolition derby to the country's top research labs to check in with experts who are re-engineering what nature has given us to create the next generation of strong stuff.

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In 2010, several epic earthquakes delivered one of the worst annual death tolls ever recorded. The deadliest strike, in Haiti, killed more than 200,000 people and reduced homes, hospitals, schools, and the presidential palace to rubble. In exclusive coverage, a NOVA camera crew follows a team of U.S. geologists as they enter Haiti in the immediate aftermath of the tragedy. The team hunts for crucial evidence that will help them determine exactly what happened deep underground and what the risks are of a new killer quake. Barely a month after the Haiti quake, Chile was struck by a quake 100 times more powerful, unleashing a tsunami that put the entire Pacific coast on high alert. In a coastal town devastated by the rushing wave, NOVA follows a team of geologists as they battle aftershocks to measure the displacement caused by the earthquake. Could their work, and the work of geologists at earthquake hot spots around the U.S., one day lead to a breakthrough in predicting quakes before they happen? NOVA investigates compelling new leads in this profound scientific conundrum.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 7 (S38E07)

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Almost three miles of ice buries most of Antarctica, cloaking a continent half again as large as the United States. But when an Antarctic ice shelf the size of Manhattan collapsed in less than a month in 2002, it shocked scientists and raised the alarming possibility that Antarctica may be headed for a meltdown. Even a ten percent loss of Antarctica's ice would cause catastrophic flooding of coastal cities unlike any seen before in human history. What are the chances of a widespread melt? "Secrets Beneath the Ice" explores whether Antarctica's climate past can offer clues to what may happen. NOVA follows a state-of-the-art expedition that is drilling three-quarters of a mile into the Antarctic seafloor. The drill is recovering rock cores that reveal intimate details of climate and fauna from a time in the distant past when the Earth was just a few degrees warmer than it is today. As researchers grapple with the harshest conditions on the planet, they discover astonishing new clues about Antarctica's past—clues that carry ominous implications for coastal cities around the globe.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 6 (S38E06)

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Countless treasure-seekers have set off in search of King Solomon's mines, trekking through burning deserts and scaling the forbidding mountains of Africa and the Levant, inspired by the Bible's account of splendid temples and palaces adorned in glittering gold and copper. Yet to date, the evidence that has claimed to support the existence of Solomon and other early kings in the Bible has been highly controversial. In fact, so little physical evidence of the kings who ruled Israel and Edom has been found that many contend that they are no more real than King Arthur. In the summer of 2010, NOVA and National Geographic embarked on two cutting-edge field investigations that illuminate the legend of Solomon and reveal the source of the great wealth that powered the first mighty biblical kingdoms. These groundbreaking expeditions expose important new clues buried in the pockmarked desert of Jordan, including ancient remnants of an industrial-scale copper mine and a 3,000-year-old message with the words "slave," "king," and "judge."

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 5 (S38E05)

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Dated to the late Stone Age, Stonehenge may be the best-known and most mysterious relic of prehistory. Every year, a million visitors are drawn to England to gaze upon the famous circle of stones, but the monument's meaning has continued to elude us. Now investigations inside and around Stonehenge have kicked off a dramatic new era of discovery and debate over who built Stonehenge and for what purpose. How did prehistoric people quarry, transport, sculpt, and erect these giant stones? Granted exclusive access to the dig site at Bluestonehenge, a prehistoric stone-circle monument recently discovered about a mile from Stonehenge, NOVA cameras join a new generation of researchers finding important clues to this enduring mystery.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 4 (S38E04)

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"Dogs Decoded" reveals the science behind the remarkable bond between humans and their dogs and investigates new discoveries in genetics that are illuminating the origin of dogs—with surprising implications for the evolution of human culture. Other research is proving what dog lovers have suspected all along: Dogs have an uncanny ability to read and respond to human emotions. Humans, in turn, respond to dogs with the same hormone responsible for bonding mothers to their babies. How did this incredible relationship between humans and dogs come to be? And how can dogs, so closely related to fearsome wild wolves, behave so differently?

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A documentary examining the ubiquitous transportation device as used in modern day and features a recounting of a real-life horror story of one individual's experiences when stuck in an elevator for an extraordinarily long period of time.

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This one-hour film chronicles the fate of the 33 miners trapped in a collapsed Chilean gold and copper mine in August 2010 and investigates the many challenges faced by both the miners and those working around the clock to bring them safely to the surface. NOVA was on-site at the San José mine in Chile by early September. Conferred special access, NOVA's film crew interviewed engineers, NASA experts, medical personnel, and key figures from the companies that provided drills and crucial rescue equipment to give a more detailed scientific account of the unfolding events. The resulting film, using footage from the scene as well as advanced animation, showcases the extraordinary feats of engineering as well as the biological and geological factors inherent in the rescue. "Emergency Mine Rescue" also examines the psychological and physiological impact of this kind of prolonged ordeal on the miners and those involved in the rescue efforts.

Watch NOVA season 38 episode 1 (S38E01)

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Take a dazzling architectural journey inside those majestic marvels of Gothic architecture, the great cathedrals of Chartres, Beauvais and other European cities. Carved from 100 million pounds of stone, some cathedrals now teeter on the brink of catastrophic collapse. To save them, a team of engineers, architects, art historians, and computer scientists searches the naves, bays, and bell-towers for clues. NOVA investigates the architectural secrets that the cathedral builders used to erect their towering, glass-filled walls and reveals the hidden formulas drawn from the Bible that drove medieval builders ever upward.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 18 (S37E18)

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For 27 years, biologist Charlie Crisafulli has been documenting the dramatic return of plant and animal life to Mt. St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. / When Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, every living thing in the blast zone was buried beneath 300 feet of avalanche debris, covered with steaming mud and, finally, topped with a superheated layer of frothy rock from deep within the earth. Biologist Charlie Crisafulli has remained at the site for 27 years, documenting the dramatic return of plant and animal life to the barren landscape and pioneering a new understanding of the interaction between geologic forces and the life surrounding the mountain.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 17 (S37E17)

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Exposes the mysterious and surprising nature of the two most powerful forces on the planet: the human mind and money. Using analysis and experiment, this film explores why economists failed to predict the 2008 crash and why we so often make irrational financial decisions.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 16 (S37E16)

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In a two-hour special, NOVA examines how a simple instrument, the telescope, has fundamentally changed our understanding of our place in the universe.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 15 (S37E15)

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In a two-hour special, NOVA examines how a simple instrument, the telescope, has fundamentally changed our understanding of our place in the universe.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 14 (S37E14)

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When the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium stopped calling Pluto a planet, director Neil deGrasse Tyson found himself at the center of a firestorm led by angry Pluto-loving elementary school students. What is it about Pluto—a cold, distant, icy rock—that captures so many hearts? Four years after the IAU (International Astronomical Union) officially reclassified the ninth planet as a plutoid, NOVA travels cross-country with Tyson to find out.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 13 (S37E13)

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"Extreme Cave Diving" follows a fearless team of scientists as they venture into blue holes—underwater caves that formed during the last ice age, when sea level was nearly 400 feet below what it is today. These caves, little-known treasures of the Bahamas, are one of Earth's least explored and perhaps most dangerous frontiers. The interdisciplinary team of biologists, climatologists, and anthropologists, led by renowned cave explorer Kenny Broad, discover intriguing evidence of the earliest human inhabitants of the islands, find animals seen nowhere else on Earth, and recover a remarkable record of the planet's climate. The stakes are high as the scientists swim hundreds of feet through narrow, dark passages that have trapped and killed divers in the past, but the scientific payoff is considerable.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 12 (S37E12)

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NOVA joins a new generation of archeologists as they probe areas of Machu Picchu that haven’t been touched since the time of the Incas.

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A team of archeologists carries out experiments that reveal the techniques and labor invested in the carving of the Sphinx. The team also unearths new discoveries about the people who built the gigantic sculpture and why they created such a haunting and stupendous image.

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A magnificent trading vessel embarks on a royal expedition to a mysterious, treasure-laden land called Punt. Is this journey, intricately depicted on the wall of one of Egypt's most impressive temples, mere myth--or was it a reality? NOVA follows a team of archeologists and boat builders as they reconstruct the mighty vessel shown in the mysterious carving, and then finally launch it in to the Red Sea on a unique voyage of discovery.

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 9 (S37E09)

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NOVA dives beneath the waters of Pearl Harbor to trace provocative new clues to one of the most tragic events of World War II -- the sinking of the USS Arizona.

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NOVA takes viewers on a journey from the Galapagos Islands to the Arctic, and from the Cambrian explosion of animal forms half a billion years ago to the research labs of today. Here scientists are finally beginning to crack nature’s biggest secrets at the genetic level. And, as NOVA shows in this absorbing detective story, the results are confirming the brilliance of Darwin’s insights while exposing clues to life’s breathtaking diversity in ways the great naturalist could scarcely have imagined.

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What are dreams and why do we have them? Are they a window into a hidden realm within us? Science is only just beginning to understand. NOVA joins the leading dream researchers and witnesses the extraordinary experiments they use to investigate the world of sleep. From human narcoleptics to sleepwalking cats, from recurrent nightmares to those who can’t dream, each sequence contains a vital clue to the question these scientists are pursuing: Why do we dream?

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The final program examines the roots of our own species, Homo sapiens, which new evidence pinpoints to southern Africa some 200,000 years ago. New discoveries are upending old ideas and suggesting that our exodus from Africa was far earlier than previously thought.

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In gripping forensic detail, the second program in “Becoming Human” investigates the first skeleton that really looks like us — “Turkana Boy” — an astonishingly complete specimen of Homo erectus found by the famous Leakey team in Kenya.

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The first hour examines the factors that caused the split from the apes. The film explores the fossil of “Selam,” also known as “Lucy’s Child” — an amazing, nearly complete child fossil that helps shed light on our ancestors’ early development and how we began to depart from that of chimps.

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Though they may look like dragons and inspire stories of man-eating, fire-spitting monsters with long claws, razor-sharp teeth and muscular, whip-like tails, these creatures are actually monitor lizards, the largest lizards to walk the planet. With their acute intelligence — including the ability to plan — these lizards are a very different kind of reptile, blurring the line between reptiles and mammals. And even though these bizarre reptiles haven’t changed all that much since the dinosaurs, they are a successful species, versatile at adapting to all kinds of settings. “Lizard Kings” looks at what makes these tongued reptiles so similar to mammals and what has allowed them to become such unique survivors. But while the creatures can find their way around many different habitats, finding them is no easy task. Natural loners, and always on guard, they sense anything or anyone from hundreds of feet away. NOVA follows expert lizard hunter Dr. Eric Pianka as he tracks the elusive creatures through Australia’s heartland with cutting-edge “lizard cam” technology for an unparalleled close encounter with these versatile “living dragons.”

Watch NOVA season 37 episode 2 (S37E02)

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The best-known scientific instrument in history was dying. After nearly 20 years in space and hundreds of thousands of spectacular images, the Hubble Space Telescope's gyroscopes and sensors were failing, its batteries running down, and some of its instruments were already dead. The only hope to save Hubble was a mission so dangerous that in 2004 NASA cancelled it because it was considered too risky.

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This two-hour scripted drama tells the remarkable story behind the unveiling of the most influential scientific theory of all time, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The program is a special presentation from NOVA and National Geographic Television, written by acclaimed British screenwriter John Goldsmith and directed by John Bradshaw.

Watch NOVA season 36 episode 17 (S36E17)

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An exploration of the effect of music on the brain via four case studies from neurologist Oliver Sacks book "Musicopia" and the MRI visualizations from Sacks' own brain as classical music is played, including Bach's "Mass in B Minor." Study subjects include a man with Tourettes syndrome who has found relief while playing the drums; an autistic savant who is simply dazzling on the piano; a woman who suffers the inability to process music, known as amusia; and a surgeon whose life changed after being struck by lightning.

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In 1987, NOVA's cameras began rolling to chronicle the lives of seven young, bright medical students embarking on the longest and most rigorous endeavor in higher education: the years-long journey to become a doctor. From their first days at Harvard Medical School to the present day, none of them could have predicted what it would take, personally and professionally. In "Doctors' Diaries," a two-hour special, NOVA returns to find out what sorts of doctors—and people—the seven young students have become. The program is the latest installment in the longest-running U.S. documentary of its kind.

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In 1987, NOVA's cameras began rolling to chronicle the lives of seven young, bright medical students embarking on the longest and most rigorous endeavor in higher education: the years-long journey to become a doctor. From their first days at Harvard Medical School to the present day, none of them could have predicted what it would take, personally and professionally. In "Doctors' Diaries," a two-hour special, NOVA returns to find out what sorts of doctors—and people—the seven young students have become. The program is the latest installment in the longest-running U.S. documentary of its kind.

Watch NOVA season 36 episode 14 (S36E14)

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An examination over whether a comet struck the Great Lakes region 12,900 years ago, and whether it caused the extinction of such mega-creatures as the woolly mammoth and the saber-toothed cat in North America. Also included is the discovery of nano-diamonds which are created by heat and objects from space.

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In collaboration with National Geographic, NOVA follows the exploits of acclaimed photojournalist James Balog and a scientific team as they deploy time-lapse cameras in risky, remote locations in the Alps and Arctic, including Alaska and Greenland. Grappling with blizzards, fickle technology, and climbs up craggy precipices, the team must anchor cameras capable of withstanding subzero temperatures and winds up to 170 miles per hour. In this high-action scientific adventure, NOVA and National Geographic investigate the mystery of the mighty ice sheets, whose still-unknown behavior will affect the fate of coastlines around the world.

Watch NOVA season 36 episode 12 (S36E12)

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Once every 48 years, bamboo forests in parts of northeast India go into exuberant flower. Then, like clockwork, the flowering is invariably followed by a plague of black rats that appear to spring from nowhere to spread destruction and famine in their wake. For the first time on film, NOVA and National Geographic capture this rat population explosion in vivid detail and show how scientists are unraveling the connections between bamboo flowering and rat outbreaks. Ultimately, their research should help local people better cope with the next attack—due in 2056.

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In this program, an eye-opening documentary on the National Security Agency by best-selling author James Bamford and Emmy Award-winning producer Scott Willis, NOVA exposes the ultra-secret intelligence agency's role in the failure to stop the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent eavesdropping program that listens in without warrant on millions of American citizens.

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Orange-and-black wings fill the sky as NOVA charts one of nature's most remarkable phenomena: the epic migration of monarch butterflies across North America. To capture a butterfly's point of view, NOVA’s filmmakers used a helicopter, ultralight, and hot-air balloon for aerial views along the transcontinental route. This wondrous annual migration, which scientists are just beginning to fathom, is an endangered phenomenon that could dwindle to insignificance if the giant firs that the butterflies cling to during the winter disappear.

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As Governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger launches a dramatic and controversial program to slash carbon dioxide emissions and promote energy efficiency. NOVA explores the pros and cons of California's bold approach, which calls for improvements in energy efficiency in homes and commercial buildings; increased reliance on renewable power sources, primarily solar and wind; and major upgrades in car mileage. Hear from Governor Schwarzenegger, skeptics and supporters of the plan, and ordinary citizens and businesspeople whose lives are impacted. Among those interviewed is Steven Chu, who went on to become the U.S. Energy Secretary in the Obama Administration.

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After four decades of fly-by probes, orbiters, landers, and rovers, the quest for life on Mars is as tantalizing as ever. NOVA goes behind the scenes of the latest NASA missions to the Red Planet to reveal new clues and challenges on the road to answering this ultimate question. With unique access to the NASA Phoenix and Mars Exploration Rover missions, NOVA shows scientists and engineers in action, directing the operations of spacecraft millions of miles away, as the robotic explorers drill into rock, claw into soil, analyze samples, and trundle across the rock-strewn landscape in search of signs that Mars once or maybe even still harbors some form of life.

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NOVA takes you inside a very special ER to witness the efforts of wildlife veterinarians as they fight to save their animal patients as well as to uncover the cause of a mysterious neurological illness plaguing marine mammals like California sea lions and harbor seal pups. Part emergency room, part rehab facility, and part research lab, the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California means the difference between life and death for sick and injured ocean animals. Not only are the animal patients endearing, they are also sending us an urgent message about the health of our oceans.

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“The Bible’s Buried Secrets,” produced by Rhode Island-based Providence Pictures for PBS's science series Nova, attempts to uncover who wrote the Hebrew Bible and whether it’s history or parable, delving into the origins of the Israelites to explore their gradual transformation into a monotheistic people. The show also poses provocative ideas – including the “revelation” that many Israelites believed that God had a wife – and disputes literal readings of the text.

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The 2004 discovery of tiny human fossil bones on the island of Flores, Indonesia, raised new—and controversial—speculation about the history of the human race. Ever since, scientists have been scrambling to find more information about these "hobbits."

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Fractals are more than just pretty pictures. These simple but sophisticated equations describe the world we live in, from forest growth patterns to the beating of a human heart, and they are inspiring new investigation in myriad fields of science and technology.

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Join Mark Everett on his quixotic quest to understand his father Hugh, creator of a radical theory of quantum physics.

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At the end of a nearly flawless 15-day mission in early 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during reentry into Earth's atmosphere, killing the crew of seven men and women. In this documentary, NOVA probes the accident and the decisions stretching back four decades that made the tragedy almost inevitable. It offers a penetrating look at the history of the shuttle program and the political pressures that made the shuttle a highly complex engineering compromise, which fell short of its ambitious goal to make space travel routine, cheap, and safe.

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Most people imagine dinosaurs lurking in warm locales with swamps and jungles, dining on vegetation and each other. But "Arctic Dinosaurs" reveals that many species also thrived in the harsh environments of the north and south polar regions. NOVA follows two high-stakes expeditions and the paleontologists who push the limits of science to unearth 70 million-year-old fossils buried in the vast Alaskan tundra.

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At age 78, E.O. Wilson is still going through his "little savage" phase of boyhood exploration of the natural world. In "Lord of the Ants," NOVA profiles this soft-spoken Southerner and Harvard professor, who is an acclaimed advocate for ants, biological diversity, and the controversial extension of Darwinian ideas to human society. Actor and environmentalist Harrison Ford narrates this engaging portrait of a ceaselessly active scientist and eloquent writer, who has accumulated two Pulitzer Prizes among his many other honors. Says fellow naturalist David Attenborough: "He will go down as the man who opened the eyes of millions 'round the world to the glories, the values, the importance of—to use his term—biodiversity."

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In this award-winning documentary, a difficult journey that begins in hopelessness and shame for thousands of women in Ethiopia ends in a productive new life. The film tells the personal stories of rural women who make their way to Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa, seeking treatment for obstetric fistula, a life-shattering complication of childbirth. Filmed in a starkly beautiful landscape, the documentary juxtaposes the isolated lives of village women who are outcasts because of their medical condition, with the faraway hospital that offers a miracle after a long and arduous trek—a "walk to beautiful."

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Tom and Ray Magliozzi of NPR's Car Talk, explore new technologies and ideas for the future of automobiles.

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The ancient Maya civilization of Central America left behind an intricate and mysterious hieroglyphic script, carved on monuments, painted on pottery, and drawn in handmade bark-paper books. For centuries, scholars considered it too complex ever to understand—until recently, when an ingenious series of breakthroughs finally cracked the code and unleashed a torrent of new insights into the Mayas' turbulent past. For the first time, NOVA presents the epic inside story of how the decoding was done—traveling to the remote jungles of southern Mexico and Central America to investigate how the code was broken and what Maya writings now reveal.

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A look at the 2002 discovery of a four-winged crow-sized dinosaur fossil dubbed Microraptor, which has rekindled the scientific debate over the origins of flight. Included is a wind tunnel test of a "flight-ready" model of the 130 million-year-old Microraptor.

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At a research site in Fongoli, Senegal, a female chimpanzee breaks off a branch, chews the end to make it sharp, and then uses this rudimentary spear to skewer a tasty bush baby hiding inside a hollow tree. It’s an astonishing breakthrough for primate researchers—the first time anyone has documented a chimpanzee wielding a carefully prepared, preplanned weapon. But it's only the latest in a slew of extraordinary new findings about ape behavior. The more researchers learn about the great apes—chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans—the more evidence they find of creative intelligence. What, then, is the essential difference between them and us? "Ape Genius," a NOVA-National Geographic special, explores that provocative question and examines research that is illuminating the ape mind. Bit by bit, investigators are finding an explanation for why the non-human great apes never made the breakthrough into a human-style culture that builds on the achievements of previous generations.

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Millions remember the countdowns, launchings, splashdowns, and parades as the U.S. raced the USSR to the moon in the 1960s. But few know that both countries also ran parallel space programs, whose covert goal was to launch military astronauts on spying missions. With investigative journalist James Bamford, NOVA delves into the untold story of this top-secret space race, which might easily have turned into a shooting war in orbit.

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For 25 centuries the Parthenon has been shot at, set on fire, rocked by earthquakes, looted for its sculptures, almost destroyed by explosion, and disfigured by well-meaning renovations. It has gone from temple, to church, to mosque, to munitions dump. What could be next? How about a scientific search for the secrets of its incomparable beauty and astonishingly rapid construction? With unprecedented access, NOVA unravels the architectural and engineering mysteries of this celebrated ancient temple.

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Our mastery of cold is something we take for granted, whether it s air conditioning and frozen food or the liquefied gases and superconductivity at the heart of cutting-edge technology. But what is cold? How do you achieve it, and how cold can it get? This two-part NOVA special brings the history of this frosty fascination to life with brilliant dramatic recreations of high moments in low-temperature research and the quest for ever-lower notches on the thermometer. In the second hour, The Race For Absolute Zero dramatizes the titanic rivalry between Scottish researcher James Dewar and Dutch physicist Heike Onnes, who plunged cold science to the forbidding realm at which oxygen and then nitrogen turn into liquids. The race continues today as scientists pioneer super-fast computing near absolute zero the ultimate chill of -459.67° F where atoms slow to a virtual standstill.

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Our mastery of cold is something we take for granted, whether it s air conditioning and frozen food or the liquefied gases and superconductivity at the heart of cutting-edge technology. But what is cold? How do you achieve it, and how cold can it get? This two-part NOVA special brings the history of this frosty fascination to life with brilliant dramatic recreations of high moments in low-temperature research and the quest for ever-lower notches on the thermometer. The first hour, The Conquest of Cold, opens in the 1600s when the nature of cold and heat was a complete mystery. Were they different aspects of the same phenomenon? The experiments that settled these questions helped stoke the Industrial Revolution.

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In the early 1950s, epic battles unfolded in the skies over North Korea as American and Russian fighters faced off in history's first jet war. This program explores the Korean War's aerial tactics, technology, and grim aftermath for downed pilots, many of whom disappeared without a trace. The Korean War pitted the two most advanced fighters of their day, the American F-86 Sabre and the Soviet MiG-15, in furious air battles in North Korea's notorious "MiG Alley." With the help of dramatic reconstructions, rare archival footage, and interviews with veteran American and Soviet pilots, NOVA puts viewers in the cockpit to experience the lethal split-second duels that erupted in MiG Alley.

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The Mofu people of northern Cameroon have a close relationship with insects, in particular, the red driver ants which they use to combat termites.

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Using courtroom reenactments based on transcripts and interviews with those present, NOVA looks at the events of the federal case of Kitzmiller v. Dover School District.

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On October 4, 1957, the Space Age dawned with the red hue of the Communist flag when the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite. Sputnik I stunned the world and spurred a surge in science education and innovation that changed our world forever. But was Sputnik I really a shock to America's leaders, and how close was the U.S. to getting into space first? NOVA draws on previously classified documents to tell the real story behind the opening chapter in the space race.

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Can anyone run a marathon? How do you run 26.2 miles if you have trouble making it around the block? With good coaching, discipline, and lots of group support, as NOVA shows when it follows 13 generally sedentary people through a training regimen designed to prepare them for an ultimate test of stamina and endurance. Produced in cooperation with the Boston Athletic AssociationÂź, which granted NOVA unprecedented access to the 111th Boston MarathonÂź, and Tufts University, "Marathon Challenge" takes viewers on a unique adventure inside the human body, tracking the physiological changes that exercise can bring about.

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Experts investigate how a mysterious "second genome" helps determine our biological fates.

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English archers had their longbows, Old West sheriffs had their six-guns, but Japan’s samurai warriors had the most fearsome weapon of all: the razor-sharp, unsurpassed technology of the katana, or samurai sword. In this program, NOVA probes the centuries-old secrets that went into forging what many consider the perfect blade. Fifteen traditional Japanese craftsmen spent nearly six months creating the sword that NOVA follows through production, from smelting the ore to forging the steel to sharpening the blade to a keen edge capable of slicing through a row of warriors at one swoop.

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Through a mix of crime-lab science, archeology, and history, this NOVA/National Geographic special presents new evidence that is changing what we know about the final days of the once-mighty Inca Empire. This probing story of archeological discovery begins in a cemetery crammed with skeletons that offer tantalizing clues about a fierce 16th-century battle between warriors of the collapsing Inca Empire and Spanish invaders. Now, the long-accepted account of a swift Spanish conquest of the Inca—achieved with guns, steel, and horses—is being replaced by a more complete story based on surprising new evidence, including what may be the first gunshot wound in the Americas.

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NOVA follows a group of paleontologists to a cave in southwestern Australia where the fossils of a meat-eating marsupial lion, and other extinct giant animals, have recently been discovered.

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The recent archeological discovery of the Native American Powhatan village of Werowocomoco, sheds new light on the Jamestown story of Pocahontas.

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As the Earth heats up at a dangerous rate and fossil fuels become scarcer, ordinary citizens and businesses are bypassing the federal government to lead the way in exploring a clean, renewable source of power: the sun. In this report, NOVA shines a light on how and why people across America and the world are "going solar," using radiant energy of the sun to power homes, businesses, and even entire communities. But can everyday people really make a difference by using solar power? And can solar technologies, with their high cost and logistical challenges, truly play a bigger role in powering the future of humanity? The grand hopes, latest innovations, roiling controversies, and practical realities of solar power all come to the fore in this program.

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In the remote mountains of China, scientist come closer to understanding the origins of flowers.

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Join NOVA on a voyage beneath the waves, where you'll discover a bizarre, alien-like creature like no other. It's an animal with eight sucker-covered arms growing out of its head, three hearts pumping its blue-green blood, and a doughnut-shaped brain. It has the ability to change its color and shape to blend in with seaweed and rocks, and it has a knack for switching on electrifying light shows that dazzle its prey. Perhaps most surprising of all, this animal is quite intelligent, with a highly complex brain. In this program, underwater cameras capture the extraordinary powers of the cuttlefish.

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Scientists return to the jungles of Congo to further explore the peaceful lives of bonobos.

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The grandson of Alabama slaves, Percy Julian met with every possible barrier in a deeply segregated America. He was a man of genius, devotion, and determination. As a black man he was also an outsider, fighting to make a place for himself in a profession and country divided by bigotry—a man who would eventually find freedom in the laboratory. By the time of his death, Julian had risen to the highest levels of scientific and personal achievement, overcoming countless obstacles to become a world-class scientist, a self-made millionaire, and a civil-rights pioneer.

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Follow one man's dream to engeneer a submarine with panaramic views.

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Experts explore the mysterious story of five siblings living in a remote Turkish village.

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The flamboyant rise and tragic death of pioneering aviator Alberto-Santos Dumont.

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Astronomers are closing in on the proof they've sought for years that one of the most destructive objects in the universe—a supermassive black hole—lurks at the center of our own galaxy. Could it flare up and consume our entire galactic neighborhood? Join NOVA on a mind-bending investigation into one of the most bizarre corners of cosmological science: black hole research. From event horizon to singularity, the elusive secrets of supermassive black holes are revealed through stunning computer-generated imagery, including an extraordinary simulation of what it might look like to fall into the belly of such an all-devouring beast.

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On March 27, 1977, on the island of Tenerife, two fully loaded 747 jumbo jets collided on a fog-blanketed runway, claiming the lives of 583 people in what is still the deadliest crash in aviation history. Now, almost 30 years later, near misses on the ground are the leading cause of aviation accidents, raising the question of what can be done to improve runway safety. Featuring moving interviews with the few survivors of the disaster and with top accident investigators, this program examines the fateful confluence of events that led to the Tenerife tragedy and its continuing relevance for air travel today.

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Researchers unearth clues about the greatest Volcanic eruption of the past 100000 years.

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Can lessons learned from the Twin Towers' collapse make new buildings safer?

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Everyone has heard of global warming, but a lesser-known man-made phenomenon has been nearly as powerful at affecting Earth's climate. A look at global dimming, created by soot and pollution reflecting the sun's rays and surprisingly helping to offset global warming's catastrophic advance.

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A mission to Saturn and its enigmatic sattelite, Titan, looks for clues to the origins of life.

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Driverless vehicles compete in a 130-mile race across the Majove Desert.

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NOVA recreates the expeditions of Sir John Franklin and Roald Amundsen, two Arctic explorers who set out to find the legendary Arctic sea route known as the Northwest Passage.

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A 40-year hunt for solar neutrinos leads to a new understanding of matter itself.

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David Attenborough probes the mystery of ancient life-forms perfectly preserved in amber.

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Forensic investigators tease secrets from the well preserved bodies of people buried long ago under peat bogs.

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Doctors, rescuers and mountaineers try to determine why people die attempting to climb Mount McKinley.

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Could a mummy found in Niagara Falls be the remains of a long-lost Pharaoh?

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In less than 12 hours on August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Louisiana coast, leading to more than a thousand deaths and transforming a city of over one million into an uninhabitable swamp. NOVA investigates the science of Hurricane Katrina, combining a penetrating analysis of what went wrong with a dramatic, minute-by-minute unfolding of events told through eyewitness testimony. What made this storm so deadly? Will powerful hurricanes like Katrina strike more often? How accurately did scientists predict its impact, and why did the levees protecting New Orleans fail?

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He was the greatest scientist of his day, perhaps of all time. But while Isaac Newton was busy discovering the universal law of gravitation, he was also searching out hidden meanings in the Bible and pursuing the covert art of alchemy. In this program, NOVA explores the strange and complex mind of Isaac Newton. Using docudrama scenes starring Scott Handy (Masterpiece Theatre's Henry VIII) as Newton, this film recreates the unique climate of late 17th-century England, where a newfound fascination with science and mathematics coexisted with extreme views on religious doctrine. Newton shared both obsessions.

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One of the most daring clandestine operations of World War II was the 1944 sinking of the Norwegian ferry Hydro with its cargo of "heavy water" destined for the Nazis' secret atomic bomb project. Although the mission was declared a success, no one ever established if the special shipment was actually on board. In this program, NOVA descends 1,300 feet beneath a remote Norwegian lake to find the answer.

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A restless mountain threatens a bustling metropolis perched on its flanks.

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Exactly 100 years ago, Albert Einstein grappled with the implications of his revolutionary Special Theory of Relativity and came to a startling conclusion: mass and energy are one, related by the formula E = mc2. Among Einstein's ideas, E = mc2 is by far the most famous. Yet how many people know what it really means? In a thought-provoking and engrossing documentary, Einstein's Big Idea illuminates this deceptively simple formula by unrevealing the story of how it came to be.

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The search for the wreck of the Yamato, the largest and mightiest battleship ever floated and the pride of the Japanese Imperial Fleet. Constructed in absolute secrecy and sunk by American planes toward the end of World War II, her rapid demise had been a mystery, rather like a military Titanic.

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It was the greatest flood of the past two million years, and it posed a giant scientific riddle. A maverick geologist became convinced that thousand-foot-deep floodwaters had scoured out vast areas of the American northwest near the end of the last ice age. Mainstream scientists scorned his theory while he searched patiently for answers to what could have triggered such an inconceivably violent event. Finally, an ingenious solution silenced the skeptics: traces of an enormous ice dam half a mile high, which had blocked a valley in present-day Montana and created an enormous lake behind it. With the help of stunningly realistic animation, NOVA takes viewers back to the Ice Age to reveal what happened when the dam broke, unleashing a titanic flood that swept herds of woolly mammoth and everything else into oblivion.

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On December 26, 2004 a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean kills more than 250,000 people. NOVA takes an in depth look at just what happened on that fateful day.

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In 1909, Louis Bleriot undertakes a heroic first-ever flight over the English Channel.

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A team of experts takes on the preservation of the origianl Constitution, Declaration of Indipendance and Bill of Rights.

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Ever since its sensational unveiling by Yale University scholars in October 1965, the Vinland Map has been a lightning rod for passionate debate. Most reviews of the arguments, including NOVA's program, have focused on scientific tests designed to gauge the authenticity of the map's ink. The opinions of experts in cartography and historical manuscripts have commanded much less attention, yet from the outset scholars in these disciplines pointed out glaring anomalies in the case for the Vinland Map's authenticity.

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A chronicle of the turbulent birth, life and death of the Concorde, the world's first and only supersonic airliner.

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For decades, a fossil skull discovered in Piltdown, England, was hailed as the missing link between apes and humans. Entire careers were built on its authenticity. Then in 1953, the awful truth came out: "Piltdown Man" was a fake! But who done it? In "The Boldest Hoax," NOVA gets to the bottom of the greatest scientific hoodwinking of all time.

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NOVA follows a team of scientists as the monitor the Martian rovers Spirit and Opportunity. Spirit runs into some problems, but Opportunity takes a photograph that may confirm the existence of water on Mars.

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Follow an expedition to a remote cave in the Judean desert, first excavated by the famed Israeli archeologist Yigael Yadin in 1960-61. Yadin uncovered a cache of ancient documents, human skulls, and artifacts that shed light on a legendary revolt by Jews against the Roman Empire in the year 132. The uprising, led by Jewish patriot Shimon Bar-Kokhba, is said to have resulted in the Roman slaughter of 580,000 Jews. NOVA explores the last refuge of one group of Bar-Kokhba's followers with an historian whose bold theories have rocked the world of biblical archeology.

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Archeologists excavate Stalag Luft 3, the site of the greatest WWII prisoner escape. Prisoners of the camp are also interviewed.

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Who were the first Ameicans and where did they come from?

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Examine the complex case of Typhoid Mary, a cook that was quaratined for life against her will in the early 1900s.

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"Origins: Back to the Beginning" explores how the colossal, mind-boggling forces of the early universe made it possible for habitable worlds to emerge. The clues begin with a race among scientists to capture lingering echoes of the big bang's ferocious energy in a microwave "whisper" from deep space. The race pits underdog astronomer Tony Readhead and his improvised detector in the high Andes against NASA scientists and their state-of-the-art satellite probe. Host astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson shares his excitement with viewers as computer animation of the big bang's echo emerges on the screen. It's as close as we can get to a "photograph" of the primordial universe. Here we glimpse the seeds from which all the galaxies, stars, and planets eventually grew.

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In "Origins: Where are the Aliens?," host astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson explores such provocative questions as: would "ETs" resemble us or the creatures of science fiction? Are there "aliens" already amongst us on Planet Earth—brainy creatures whose intelligence is very different from our own? And are planets on which life can flourish rare or common in our universe?

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"Origins: How Life Began," zeroes in on the mystery of exactly how it happened. Join the hunt for hardy microbes that flourish in the most unlikely places: inside rocks in a mine shaft two miles down, inside a cave dripping with acid as strong as a car battery's, and in noxious gas bubbles erupting from the Pacific ocean floor. The survival of these tough microorganisms suggests they may be related to the planet's first primitive life forms. Host astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson deepens the search by investigating tantalizing and controversial chemical "signatures" of life inside three-billion-year-old rocks and meteorites found around the world.

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"Origins: Earth is Born" gives viewers a spectacular glimpse of the tumultuous first billion years of Planet Earth—a time of continuous catastrophe. Vivid animation lets viewers witness the traumatic birth of the moon from a titanic collision between Earth and an object believed to have been the size of Mars. Bombarded by meteors and comets, rocked by massive volcanic eruptions, and scoured by hot acid rain, the early Earth seems a highly improbable place for life to have taken root. Despite such violent beginnings, scientists have found new clues that life-giving water and oxygen appeared on our planet much earlier than previously thought.

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Can the US military's high tech weaponry prevail against insurgants.

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Nova investigates the impact of forces that are radically changing populations in both rich and poor nations.

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Nova investigates the impact of forces that are radically changing populations in both rich and poor nations.

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Scientists, meteorologists and storm chasers try to uncover the secrets of F5 tornadoes, the largest, most powerful and most dangerous on Earth. Included are looks at how funnels form and the devastating 2003 tornado in Moore, Oklahoma, plus "tornado tourists," who pay companies to take them to the ferocious phenomena to see them first-hand.

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While other reporters were embedded in fighting units during the Iraq War, NOVA was covering the emergency medical response, living night and day with the doctors, nurses, and medics in a frontline Combat Support Hospital (CSH). The program captures a period of the conflict in April and May of 2003 when CSH units faced a deluge of injured Iraqi soldiers and civilians who had little support from their country's collapsed health-care system.

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One of the most exhaustive investigations in aviation history reveals telling clues to the cause of a dissaster off Nova Scotia.

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A team of "glacionauts" verntures into a labyrinth of unexplored and hazardous glacier caves on France's Mt. Blanc.

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NOVA goes beyond the wagging tails and floppy ears to reveal surprising insights into the origin and evolutionary strategy of our canine companions. From a wolf research facility in rural Indiana to New York’s Westminster Dog Show, you’ll discover some amazing dog facts. Did you know the Saluki can beat any other mammal on earth in a three-mile race? That dogs developed spots for a specific reason? And that their evolution is helping us learn about our own?

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Rare lemurs and crocodiles with bizarre cave-dwelling behavior draw scientists to remote corner of Madagascar.

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Go inside NASA's risky field trip to the red planet in this tense and dramatic behind-the-scenes chronicle of the $820 million Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project.

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Join a scientific expedition to the glacier-capped summit of Kilimanjaro, Africa's tallest mountain.

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Is the magnetic field protecting Earth from deadly radiation about to reverse direction or even dissapear?

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Relive the engineering challenges that two bicycle makers overcame to become the first in flight.

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Part 3 of "The Elegant Universe” with host Brian Greene shows how Edward Witten of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study, aided by others, revolutionized string theory by successfully uniting the five different versions into a single theory that is cryptically named "M-theory," a development that requires a total of eleven dimensions. Ten...eleven...who's counting? But the new 11th dimension implies that strings can come in shapes called membranes, or "branes" for short. These have truly science fiction-like qualities, since in principle they can be as large as the universe. A brane can even be a universe—a parallel universe—and we may be living on one right now.

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Part 2, "String's the Thing," opens with a whimsical scene in a movie theater in which the history of the universe runs backwards to the Big Bang, the moment at which general relativity and quantum mechanics both came into play, and therefore the point at which our conventional model of reality breaks down. Then it's string theory to the rescue as Greene describes the steps that led from a forgotten 200-year-old mathematical formula to the first glimmerings of strings—quivering strands of energy whose different vibrations give rise to quarks, electrons, photons, and all other elementary particles. Strings are truly tiny, being smaller than an atom by the same factor that a tree is smaller than the solar system. But, as Greene explains, they are able to combine the laws of the large and the laws of the small into a proposal for a single, harmonious theory of everything.

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Part 1, "Einstein's Dream," introduces string theory and shows how modern physics—composed of two theories that are ferociously incompatible—reached its schizophrenic impasse: One theory, general relativity, successfully describes big things like stars and galaxies, while another, quantum mechanics, is equally successful at explaining small things like atoms and subatomic particles. Albert Einstein, the inventor of general relativity, dreamed of finding a single theory that would embrace all of nature's laws. But in this quest for the so-called unified theory, Einstein came up empty-handed, and the conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics has stymied all who've followed. That is, until the discovery of string theory.

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Forensic experts investigate the most famous aviation mystery of World War 1.

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A battered manuscript turns up after 1000 years revealing the mind of the Greek genius Archimedes

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On April 25, 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published their groundbreaking discovery of the double helix structure of DNA, the molecule essential for passing on our genes and the ''secret of life.'' But their crucial breakthrough depended on the pioneering work of another biologistÐRosalind Franklin. She would never know that Watson and Crick had seen a crucial piece of her data without her permission. This was an X-ray image, ''Photo 51,'' that proved to be a vital clue in their decoding of the double helix. 50 years later, NOVA investigates the shocking truth behind one of the greatest scientific discoveries and presents a moving portrait of a brilliant woman in an era of male-dominated science. Sadly, Franklin never lived to see her vital role in the discovery vindicated. While Watson and Crick went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1962, Franklin died in 1958, at 37, from ovarian cancer; and the Nobel is not awarded posthumously. Hear the inside story from Maurice Wilkins, the colleague who showed her crucial x-ray to Watson; Raymond Gosling, FranklinÕs Ph.D. student with whom she made Photo 51; and Nobel Prize winner Sir Aaron Klug, FranklinÕs last collaborator, who shows new evidence of just how close Franklin came to making the vital double helix discovery herself.

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In 1989 marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz went diving off southern France and was stunned by what he saw: a dense blanket of waving green fronds stretching around him in every direction on the seabed. At first Meinesz had no idea what it was. Then he made the alarming discovery that a tropical alga had taken root in the cold water of the Mediterranean, wiping out native sea life wherever it grew. "Deep Sea Invasion" follows Meinesz on his scientific detective hunt to discover the source of this deadly organism, his uphill battle to alert authorities to its danger, and the struggle to find a non-toxic way to control it.

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"Dirty Bomb" probes the realities and implications for public health policy of a disaster that many consider to be all but inevitable: a terrorist attack on a major city using a radioactive "dirty bomb." The program strives to answer crucial questions about this menacing new weapon in the terrorists' arsenal, questions such as: What exactly is a dirty bomb? How dangerous could one be, and how much radiation could it release? What will need to be done to clean up after an explosion?

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Before Leonardo da Vinci painted "The Last Supper," Tibetan craftsmen were creating stunning artistry of their deities in the remote Himalayan kingdom of Mustang. In "Lost Treasures of Tibet," NOVA goes behind the scenes with the first conservation team from the West, as it undertakes the painstaking restoration of these ancient masterpieces and the beautiful monasteries that house them.

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In this high-altitude adventure, Jon Krakauer, author of Into Thin Air, world-class mountaineer Conrad Anker, and their team of climbers, scientists, and filmmakers take a trailblazing expedition to the top of Antarctica's tallest peak, Vinson. Along the way, their experiences are contrasted with those of Norwegian adventurer Roald Amundsen and British explorer Robert Falcon Scott who in 1911 raced to be first to reach the South Pole. Join NOVA and battle 60-mile-an-hour winds and temperatures as low as 35 degrees below zero. Learn about the horrible fate that befell Scott and his team after reaching the South Pole one month after Amundsen. See spectacular panoramic footage. Top scientists join mountaineers on an expedition to explore Antarctica and climb to Vinson Massif, which stands as the highest peak in the continent. Expert mountaineer Jon Krakuer narrates this documentary that also includes a look back to the year 1912 when Scott and Amundsen raced to reach the South Pole.

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A behind the scenes look at the competition to build the Joint Strike Fighter. Cameras follow engineering teams from Boeing and Lockheed Martin as each makes fateful design decisions.

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NOVA chronicles the discovery of a "living fossil," a fish called the coelacanth that has remained relatively unchanged since prehistoric times. The program recalls Darwin's prediction that some creatures would have not undergone any major adaptations due to selective pressures and would have remained relatively the same since prehistoric times.

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On March 25, 1944, a U.S. Navy bomber disappeared into the fog over the Bering Sea heading for a Japanese target. Fifty-five years later it has suddenly reemerged with a remarkable tale. NOVA travels to the plane's final resting place to unravel the mystery. Using clues found at the crash site and the latest forensic techniques, a U.S. government team gets to the bottom of this half-century-old disappearance.

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The air war in Afghanistan showed that sometimes the hottest pilots are sitting on the ground operating the remote controls of UAVs—or unmanned aerial vehicles. In newly declassified footage, "Spies That Fly" reveals the astounding capabilities of UAVs and the ambitious plans for future models.

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For nine months in 2000, Tom Hart Dyke was a captive of guerrillas who seized him while he was collecting wild orchids in the Colombian rain forest. Now Hart Dyke is at it again in the most orchid-rich and one of the most politically unstable parts of Irian Jaya, the western half of the island of New Guinea.

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Experts struggle to save the City of Canals before it vanishes beneath the waves.

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In January 1993, six scientists and three hikers were scalded and crushed to death when they ventured into the smoking mouth of the active volcano Galeras in Colombia, confident that no eruption was imminent. This program tells the gripping story of this controversial field trip and the quest to predict when volcanoes will blow.

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In this two-hour special, NOVA celebrates the story of the father of modern science and his struggle to get Church authorities to accept the truth of his astonishing discoveries. The program is based on Dava Sobel's bestselling book, Galileo's Daughter, which reveals a new side to the famously stubborn scientist—that his closest confidante was his illegitimate daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, a cloistered nun.

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Experts rescue pricess mosaics from an ancient city that is about to disapear beneath a resivoir.

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Toxic caverns teaming with strange life-forms spark a brand new theory about how caves form.

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Doctors combat the deadliest for of meningitis which strikes young people out of the blue.

Watch NOVA season 29 episode 17 (S29E17)

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In the program, NOVA accompanies the men and women of a wildland firefighting crew known as the Arrowhead Hotshots as they battle one of the most destructive wildfire seasons ever, the summer of 2000.

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Can lessons learned from the Twin Towers' collapse make new buildings safer?

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In October and November 1999, NOVA journeyed into ice-choked Antarctic waters and onto the shores of rugged Elephant and South Georgia Islands as we followed in the footsteps of Sir Ernest Shackleton. This legendary explorer's 1914-1916 Endurance expedition is one of the greatest survival stories of all time. Then, in April 2000, we returned to document Shackleton's final trial -- the crossing of South Georgia -- by three of the world's most distinguished mountaineers, Reinhold Messner, Conrad Anker and Stephen Venables. Follow the expeditions as they unfolded in real-time on this Web site, and also watch for a NOVA Giant Screen Film Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure, as well as a NOVA program, "Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance," which originally aired on March 26, 2002.

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A paleontological tour-de-force and suspenseful scientific detective story, the program documents the search for the ancestor of all four-limbed animals, including humans.

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The program chronicles the lives and covert activities of the so-called "atom spies" in the 1940's, including the big one that got away, Theodore Alvin Hall.

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The film probes the enigma of our Neanderthal cousins and the roots of our own ancestry.

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The program probes the deep mysteries of gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful celestial explosions since the big bang.

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The program, with Sir David Attenborough narrating, celebrates the extraordinary antics male bowerbirds get up to when courting a female.

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Marked by striking imagery and a poetic style, the film dramatizes the life cycle of the world's oldest living thing, the bristlecone pine of California's White Mountains.

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A sequel to the most popular NOVA of all time, "Miracle of Life," the program once again uses the extraordinary microimagery of Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson to track human development from embryo to newborn.

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The film follows three New York Times reporters as they delve into the murky past of bioweapons research and grapple with the current threat of anthrax and other attacks.

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NOVA takes an intimate look at the men who are in control of Russia's nuclear missiles, standing just a heartbeat from the top Russian politicians and Armageddon. Hosted by Vladimir Pozner, Russia's top television journalist, this startling film shows that despite low pay and the tedious existence that these soldiers and their families live with, these men are motivated by a strong sense of patriotic duty and responsibility for the ultimate powers of destruction at their fingertips, in a job that requires complete perfection.

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The film investigates the complicated world of gender identity.

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This NOVA program delves into the mind-tingling efforts of neuroscientist V.S. Ramachandran to discover how the brain works.

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The program investigates the brave new world of assisted reproduction.

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The program chronicles the tobacco industry's decades long effort to create a "safer" cigarette.

Watch NOVA season 28 episode 17 (S28E17)

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A gene from a jellyfish is placed in a potato plant, making it light up whenever it needs watering. Rice plants are genetically transformed to produce vitamin A, preventing millions of African children from going blind. Other plants are modified to produce plastic or pharmaceuticals. While many see these as wondrous advancements, others fear they could spawn serious new threats to human health, a loss of genetic viability in our most important crop species, and other signficant and perhaps unforeseen problems. In "Harvest of Fear," NOVA and FRONTLINE join forces to explore the growing controversy over genetically modified agriculture.

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This two-hour special, hosted by ABC "Nightline" correspondent Robert Krulwich, chronicles the race to capture one of the biggest prizes in scientific history: the complete letter-by-letter sequence of genetic information that defines human life -- the human genome.

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In 1987 NOVA embarked with seven brilliant, natural-born survivors on the longest-running boot camp in higher education: the nearly decade-long process of training to be a fully qualified doctor. Now all but one of them (who switched careers) are out in the world in high-powered medical careers, trying to balance the demands of work, families, and personal lives, as NOVA reports on Survivor MD, which airs in three one-hour segments.

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In 1987 NOVA embarked with seven brilliant, natural-born survivors on the longest-running boot camp in higher education: the nearly decade-long process of training to be a fully qualified doctor. Now all but one of them (who switched careers) are out in the world in high-powered medical careers, trying to balance the demands of work, families, and personal lives, as NOVA reports on Survivor MD, which airs in three one-hour segments.

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In "Tattooed Doctor," the first hour of NOVA's "Survivor M.D." series, emergency-room physician Dr. Tom Tarter eloquently describes some of the challenges and rewards of emergency medicine.

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For decades Dr. Judah Folkman struggled against the grain of many in the cancer research community in his quest to pioneer a novel form of cancer treatment. In 1960, when he was a young surgical resident, Folkman discovered a startling secret about how cancer grows, which he called angiogenesis. It was a clue he would pursue for the next 40 years. "Cancer Warrior" tells the incredible saga of his personal dedication in a race to defeat one of humanity's most invincible foes.

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The film follows the work of archeologists who are using new excavations and hieroglyphic translations to interpret the early history of CopĂĄn, a Classic Maya site in northern Honduras.

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The program documents a series of spectacular escape attempts made at Colditz Castle, the Nazi's most impregnable prison.

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The program investigates the mysterious disappearance -- and, half a century later, reappearance -- of Stardust, a civilian aircraft that crashed in the Andes in 1947.

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The program follows a French-led expedition to recover thousands of porcelain and other artifacts from a centuries-old Chinese shipwreck off the coast of Brunei.

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The program chronicles a year in the life of wildlife and people around Lake Biwa, Japan, a cycle that has continued unchanged for thousands of years.

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The film examines a disturbing increase in the prevalence of debilitating and sometimes life-threatening eating disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia.

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The film takes a look at the extraordinary natural history of the Seychelles, an ancient archipelago of about 100 islands scattered between India and Madagascar.

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The program follows the efforts of two rival teams of astronomers as they search for exploding stars, map out gigantic cosmic patterns of galaxies, and grapple with the ultimate question: What is the fate of the universe?

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The film follows a six-year odyssey by a group of divers to identify a mysterious U-boat they discovered in 1991 off the coast of New Jersey

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The film uses a celebrated recent trial as a springboard to examine and successfully challenge the notion of Holocaust denial

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The film chronicles an expedition to study and retrieve parts of the USS Monitor, the famous Civil War ironclad, which sank off North Carolina only months after its famous battle with the CSS Virginia.

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In this two-hour special, NOVA presents a dramatic investigation of a people who were much more than axe-wielding pirates. It features stunning camerawork in Scandinavia and the far-flung countries that the Vikings penetrated, while historians and archaeologists present us with an image of the Vikings that goes far deeper than their savage stereotype. The latest research shows that they were canny merchants, expert shipbuilders, superb artisans, and bold colonizers of lands that lay beyond the edge of the known world.

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The broadcast explores America's manned space program and the crisis caused by Russia's delay in delivering the critical third piece of the International Space Station.

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In "What's Up with the Weather?" NOVA and FRONTLINE join forces to investigate the science and politics of one of the most controversial issues of the 21st century: the truth about global warming.

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The film, which is a part of the NOVA series Secrets of Lost Empires, documents a 1999 effort by a NOVA-assembled crew of scholars and timber framers to design and build a Chinese bridge known only from an ancient painting.

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At the heart of Jewish tradition lies the haunting mystery of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Ever since their defeat and banishment by the Assyrians in 722 BC., the Lost Tribes fate has inspired countless claims to Jewish ancestry by groups scattered on every continent. But now, surprisingly, new advances in genetics are dispelling myth and fantasy, and raising a curtain on the forgotten reality of the dispersal that happened so many centuries ago. This story will follow the first attempt to use the new tests to investigate a seemingly improbable African candidate for a Lost Tribe. It will dramatize a scientific quest that leads from the gene labs of London to the remote bush country of Zimbabwe and the lunar-like desert wilderness of southern Yemen.

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In the film, which is a part of the NOVA series Secrets of Lost Empires, an international crew of archeologists, engineers, and historians designs, builds, and tests a functioning Roman bath in the Turkish countryside.

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In 1996, near Kennewick, Washington, a suspected murder victim is identified by forensic anthropologists as Caucasian - but turns out to be almost 10,000 years old. For fifty years our picture of prehistoric America has rested on the premise that the earliest inhabitants of the Americas were east Asians of mongoloid stock, the ancestors of today's Native Americans. But the discovery of the Kennewick Man, along with several other startling finds in recent years, has thrown that once widely accepted idea into question and revolutionized the science of paleo-anthropology. It has also embroiled scientists in a bitter conflict with Native American groups who want the scientific study of early Americans halted. Who and what do Kennewick Man and others represent? NOVA is following the efforts of paleo-anthropologists work to decode the story in the bones of people who died 10,000 years ago.

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The film, which is a part of the NOVA series Secrets of Lost Empires, showcases the efforts of a team of archeologists, engineers, and other experts to transport an Easter Island moai, or carved stone monolith, overland and successfully raise it onto a pedestal.

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The film tells the fascinating story of the invention of the Black-Scholes Formula, a mathematical Holy Grail that forever altered the world of finance and earned its creators the 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics.

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In the film, which is a part of the NOVA series Secrets of Lost Empires, NOVA brings together a team of Egyptologists, engineers, stonemasons, and timber framers to probe the mystery of how the ancients shaped, transported, and erected their elegant obelisks.

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The film documents the efforts of researchers around the world to create synthetic diamonds, some of which have become so indistinguishable from natural diamonds as to fool experts.

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In the film, which is a part of the NOVA series Secrets of Lost Empires, a team of timber framers and other specialists design, build, and fire a pair of trebuchets, a devastating engine of war popular in the Middle Ages.

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The program chronicles a successful 1999 NOVA expedition to investigate the mysterious disappearance of George Mallory and Andrew Irvine high on Everest in 1924. During this expedition, which included a NOVA/PBS Online Adventure, Mallory's body was found, though the mystery only deepened.

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NOVA chronicles a year in the life of a bee colony with stunning images that take viewers inside the innermost secrets of the hive. The documentary team spent a year developing special macro lenses and a bee studio to deliver the film's astonishing sequences. These include the "wedding flight" of the colony's virgin queen as it mates in mid-air with a drone; the life-and-death battle between two rival queens for the colony's throne; and the defeat and death of a thieving wasp at the entrance to the hive. The show also explores such mysteries as the famous "waggle dance" with which scout bees signal the exact direction and distance of nectar sources to the rest of the hive. A vivid picture emerges of the bee's highly organized social life, revolving around the disciplined sharing of construction tasks, the collection of nectar, and warding off enemies. "Tales From the Hive" pushes the boundaries of wildlife filmmaking and opens up an unforgettable window on a strange and complex insect world.

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The program tells the story of a handful of brilliant, obsessed surgeons and researchers who have pursued the target of a practical artificial heart for decades.

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Buried in mud beneath the shallow waters of Matagorda Bay in Texas, lay a glorious remnant of one of the most ill-fated voyages of the Age of Discovery. After years of searching the area, nautical archaeologists doing a magnetometer survey honed in on a promising site. And on the first day of diving, they were astounded to feel the distinctive outlines of a cannon, and sense the massive size of the wreck. When the cannon was hauled from the water, their hunch was confirmed: This ship, called La Belle, belonged to the 17th Century French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle. NOVA follows the building of a coffer dam and subsequent complete excavation of this remarkable site. Preserved were not only armaments and trade beads, but also a wealth of organic material—the wooden hull, leather shoes, and even a skeleton—that brings the voyage to life.

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Most historians agree that by enabling Allied commanders to eavesdrop on German plans, Station X shortened the war by 2 or 3 years. Its decoded messages played a vital role in defeating the U-boat menace, cutting off Rommel's supplies in North Africa, and launching the D-Day landings. Now, for the first time on television, a 2-hour NOVA Special tells the full story of Station X, drawing on vivid interviews with many of the colorful geniuses and eccentrics who attacked the Enigma. Wartime survivors recall such vivid episodes as the British capture of the German submarine U-110; one of its officers describes how he saved a book of love poems inscribed to his sweetheart but failed to destroy vital Enigma documents on board. "Decoding Nazi Secrets" also features meticulous period reenactments shot inside the original buildings at Station X, including recreations of the world's first computing devices that aided codebreakers with their breakthroughs. Station X not only helped reverse the onslaught of the Third Reich, but also laid the groundwork for the invention of the digital computer that continues to transform all our lives.

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In the far north of Japan, thrust out into the north Pacific, is the remote island of Hokkaido. It's a land of towering volcanoes and steaming lakes, marshy valleys and fairy tale forests. Among this magical scenery, where summers are brief and winters are fierce, lives an extraordinary spectrum of life, found nowhere else in Japan. Here among the coastal lowlands, grizzly bears plunge into icy streams for salmon, Japanese cranes perform balletic courtship dances to one another, the rare and enormous Blakistons fish owl swoops on flying squirrels, and white-tailed eagles scan the rugged ocean cliffs for unsuspecting seabirds. HIgh on the mountains Asiatic pikas, arctic hares and Siberian chipmunks gather food, ever-watchful for the predatory sable. We think of Japan as a highly-populated, ultra modern society, and yet it remains a highly spiritual place where wildlife is treasured and carefully protected. Weaving Ainu legend with fascinating natural behavior, this film will follow the lives of Hokkaido's special creatures through the seasons, to capture the true essence and beauty of this other-worldly place.

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The death of Marilyn Sheppard in 1954 is one of the most famous unsolved murders in America. The indictment of her husband, Dr. Sam Sheppard, quickly became the "Trial of the Century," then the "Re-Trial of the Century," making a celebrity out of lawyer F. Lee Bailey. Although most of the forensic evidence gathered in 1954 was ignored during Sheppard's trial, it is being re-examined with today's advanced technology. Like an intricate puzzle, the clues come together to overturn previous assumptions about the killer and point to an entirely new suspect. NOVA assembles a notable team of experts—including Barry Scheck, a well-known lawyer from the O.J. Simpson trial—and builds a precise replica of the Sheppard house, complete with the original furniture. With this unique revisiting of a vanished crime scene, NOVA investigates a horrifying and sensational milestone in forensic science.

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In the program, leading physicists delve into the mystery of whether time travel is possible, and if so, how one might go about building a time machine.

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Even before it was finished 800 years ago, the Leaning Tower of Pisa - a masterpiece of medieval architecture - began to topple, shaken by earthquakes and sinking slowly into the unstable soil. Today, the top hangs just 16 feet over the base and collapse seems imminent. NOVA follows a decade-long search for a solution to correct the lean and save the unique building. State-of-the-art computer models, ingenious experiments with models and a string of near-disasters eventually push an international committee of prominent engineers and architects into an 11th-hour decision. A suspenseful tale of engineering hopes and frustrations, the program is both high comedy and a hands-on engineering adventure, guiding viewers into the minds of daring medieval architects and their ingenious modern successors.

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The past five years have seen remarkable progress in both treatment and basic understanding of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. In laboratories and clinics across the country and around the world, scientists and doctors have pooled their expertise to keep people infected with HIV alive and disease-free longer than was imaginable at the start of the epidemic. And now, through what may well be an unprecedented cross-fertilization process among molecular biologists, immunologists, geneticists, and practicing physicians, a series of discoveries about HIV-infected patients who have successfully fought off AIDS for as long as 20 years are being closely analyzed for clues to the ultimate goal in this fierce scientific battle—a vaccine. NOVA tells the story of this ongoing battle through the experiences of patients like Robert Massie, a "long-term non-progressor." Massie, a 43-year old environmental activist and Episcopalian minister was infected by a blood transfusion in 1978 and after an acute period of illness, somehow his immune system has kept the HIV virus at bay without drugs. Surviving AIDS reveals the scientific community engaged in an enormous and ongoing struggle, with discoveries traveling from labs to patients and back. And NOVA brings together the most promising research with compelling human stories of the patients and doctors who are devoting themselves to unraveling one of the most complicated mysteries in scientific history.

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When George Mallory was asked why he was willing to risk his life to climb Mount Everest in 1924 he simply replied "Because it's there." In Nova Video Library: Everest - The Mystery of Mallory and Irvine you are invited to unravel some of the mystery surrounding the success of Mallory and his climbing partner Andrew Irvine, who set off to climb Everest on June 8, 1924. Did they make it to the top of the summit before their eventual demise? If they did, their success would predate Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzig Norgay by 30 years. This award-winning film takes a compelling look at their brave attempt and includes insightful interviews with the last two living members of Mallory's climbing team.

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At the height of the Cold War, US subs gathered secrets that neither spies nor satellites could expose. Until recently, almost nobody knew the hidden history of their tragedies and triumphs. As the US strove for supremacy in the Cold War, it pushed submarine technology to its limits. Breakthroughs led to unparalleled triumphs of espionage. And, missteps cost hundreds their lives. With recently declassified film, NOVA lifts the veil on tragic and mysterious submarine accidents and their high-risk spy missions that helped win the Cold War. Along with celebrated oceanographer and explorer, Robert Ballard (discoverer of the Titanic), NOVA goes in search of clues to two tragedies of the Cold War, the wrecks of the nuclear submarines Thresher and Scorpion. Recently declassified footage gives a unique glimpse of the wrecks and a chance to investigate the catastrophic accidents that overtook these subs and their crew.

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Is it just a fairy tale, or could a primeval beast lurk in the deep, dark waters of a Scottish lake? Since it was first reported more than 60 years ago, hundreds claim to have witnessed the Loch Ness Monster, while one scientist after another has brought the latest technology to the loch to probe the phenomenon. Twenty-five years after their first, groundbreaking expedition to Loch Ness, NOVA joins two American scientists as they return to Scotland for one last go at Nessie. During a three-week expedition, they use state-of-the-art sonar and sensitive underwater cameras in an attempt to track down and identify the elusive beast. Biologists study the ecosystem of the loch to determine if it could support a large animal. Geologists study its history, looking for clues about what kind of creature might have colonized it, and when. NOVA examines the photographic evidence in the case. And eyewitnesses vividly recount their sightings. Could this legendary creature be real, perhaps a relic from the time of dinosaurs? Or is it a shared illusion—a product of myth, mirage and wishful thinking?

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The pearl—the only gem produced by a living animal—has long carried a certain allure. Yet the best mollusk for making this gem—the pearl oyster—doesn't always produce a pearl, and even then, the pearls are rarely perfectly round. It wasn't until the late nineteenth century, when a Japanese scientist discovered a technique to incite oysters to produce these gems, that an industry was formed. Inducing an oyster to create a pearl is only half the battle—the oyster then needs a nutrient-rich, open environment in which to grow. This NOVA program looks at the science of pearl farming, follows efforts of oyster farmers trying to cope with growing problems of pollution and overcrowding, and considers the shifting sands of dominance within the pearl industry.

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Night stalkers by nature, leopards are observed both by night and day, using state-of-the-art camera equipment, to reveal never before seen hunting behavior. Filmed in the Luangua Valley in Zambia, Leopard reveals the challenges and dangers faced daily by these beautiful animals. Shadowed by hungry hyenas in pursuit of leftovers, and stalked by lumbering crocodiles hoping to tackle a lone leopard on a kill, how can they hope to challenge such beasts?

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Cutting-edge science and archaeology are reconstructing the life and culture of The Iceman—the 5000-year-old frozen corpse found buried in the ice of the Alps. By analyzing every inch of the Iceman's body and the tools and equipment found with it, scientists are piecing together the most complete picture yet of the late Stone Age in this part of Europe. X-ray, CAT scan, and microscopic analysis of this spectacular find is revealing where the iceman lived, what he ate, and how he may have died; nuclear physics reveals that the Iceman's hair was contaminated with arsenic and copper, suggesting he was involved in copper production centuries before it was known to exist in the region.

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The Siberian Ice Maiden, discovered in the Pastures of Heaven, on the high Steppes, is believed to have been a shamaness of the lost Pazyryk culture. She had been mummified and then frozen by freak climatic conditions around 2400 years ago, along with six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey. Her body was covered with vivid blue tattoos of mythical animal figures. Together with the newly discovered body of a man, nicknamed "Conan," her body has now been restored, and is providing new clues to the role and power of women in the nomadic peoples of ancient Siberia.

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This is the bizarre and fascinating story of the remains of Inca culture, frozen for posterity high in the mountains of the Andes. Evidence has emerged of sacrifice to the mountain gods, whose existence dominated the civilization over 500 years ago. The film traces the frozen bodies of children uncovered by archaeologists in South America, and follows an archaeological expedition to a high-altitude sacred site in search of ritual remains and another body. How did they come to be there? Why did they go to their deaths willingly? What was the religious framework that dictated their sacrifice to fierce gods?

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The shattered remnants of the Roman city of Pompeii bear witness to the risk that the people of Naples still face today.

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NOVA goes behind the scenes in Hollywood, where the art of illusion meets the science of perception.

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Experience the harrowing and life-threatening problems aboard the aging Mir space station through the eyes of the Russian and American astronauts who lived through them. Feel the heat from the fire that erupted on board. See the collision between Mir and another space craft. Endure the power outages and the computer failures that have jeopardized lives. Hear the debate over whether NASA should continue to risk its astronauts by sending them to Mir in preparation for the launch later this year of the most ambitious space project yet—the International Space Station.

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A massive planet-sized machine controls our weather day-to-day, and our climate season-to-season. It takes an event of staggering proportions to disrupt a machine this large and powerful, a juggernaut with more energy than a million nuclear bombs. Signs now indicate that such an event is underway - El Niño. More than a series of storms stunning the California coastline, El Niño is second only to the seasons in its effect on global weather. In a P-3 off the coast, a team plunges into a storm front to explore its cause and effects. In a boat off the Galapagos, an array of buoys are checked for temperature and current data. On a mountan in Peru, signs of the devastation of past El Niños are revealed. As scientists push to extremes to explore this phenomenon, they understand for the first time the extent to which all the world's weather is connected, and just how delicate is the balance.

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In 1714, following a maritime disaster, British Parliament offers £20,000 for the first reliable method of determining longitude on a ship at sea. It's known that longitude can be found by comparing a ship's local time to the time at the port of origin. The challenge is finding a clock—a chronometer—that can keep time at sea, where temperature changes, humidity, gravity and a ship's movement affect accuracy. NOVA chronicles the seventeenth-century journey to determine longitude.

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NOVA reports on new hope for victims of erectile dysfunction, also known as impotence. Among the promising therapies covered in the program are ones developed by Dr. Irwin Goldstein of Boston University School of Medicine and Dr. Harin Padma-Nathan, director of the Male Clinic in Santa Monica, CA. Actual cases are profiled, featuring men talking candidly about their problem—and going through treatment—on camera. Erectile dysfunction affects an estimated 52% of men between the ages of 40 and 70.

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An unprecedented look at a dangerous predator, this is the second of three natural history programs hosted by Sir David Attenborough. Surviving virtually unchanged since the days of the dinosaur and found throughout the world, these remarkable creatures have the tools for survival. Long known as vicious hunters, new photographic techniques now allow us to see them cooperating with each other and protecting their families. From tiny babies hatching from the shell we see them grow into great beasts capable of standing up to the lion and bringing down a zebra.

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Could the earth as we know it be about to drown? Huge ice sheets in Antarctica may be in the process of collapse, triggering a catastrophic rise in sea level that will inundate the most populous regions of the world. Battle extreme weather conditions in Antarctica with NOVA scientists as they gather data that will reveal new insight into the nature of global climate change.

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NOVA follows an international team of archaeologists and spelunkers into the Rio la Venta Gorge deep in the Chiapas jungle of Central America. In a rugged canyon they find caves filled with startling remains of a people called the Zoque who lived hundreds of years before the Maya. The extreme inaccessibility and relative dryness of the caves has preserved rare artifacts including bones, clothes, rope, and jewelry. Moving downstream from the caves the team finds a legendary city hidden in a tangle of jungle vines. Evidence of the Zoque's sophisticated writing system and their practice of ritualistic cannibalism and child sacrifice is shedding new light on a little known civilization.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 15 (S25E15)

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NOVA treks with a group of Himalayan climbers in their quest to reach the summit of Everest, along the way exploring in never-before-conducted tests how extremes of weather and altitude affect the human mind and body. Why do some people succumb so quickly to the ills caused by high altitude while others do not? Does exposure to extreme hypoxia—or lack of oxygen—take a lasting toll on the mind and body? Images of the brain scanned before and after the expedition may reveal truths about the physical traumas suffered in an oxygen-depleted environment, and give us new insight into why the tallest mountain in the world has claimed so many victims.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 14 (S25E14)

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In this scientific mystery, NOVA ventures to the front lines of medical research where scientists are scrambling to understand the strange new ailment popularly known as "mad cow disease." Highly infectious and incurable, this disease has claimed the lives of nearly a million cattle in Britain, and a variant is responsible for a handful of deaths in humans. Millions more people may have been exposed, and now the race is on to determine if we are on the brink of another deadly epidemic like AIDS or Ebola. What scientists are finding is making them rethink many fundamental assumptions about epidemiology and may hold startling implications for public health in the future.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 13 (S25E13)

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Tapping into the clearly demonstrated affection we all have for our pets, this program will offer an offbeat, sometimes humorous, sometimes sad portrait of pets, their owners, and the veterinarians who treat our beloved animals' ailments. From race horses under the knife for cancer treatment, to Manhattan hounds on Prozac, to anorexic boa constrictors, we will show how cutting edge veterinary medicine is saving lives, and draw viewers into the mini-dramas that unfold each day in homes, in zoos, and in veterinary hospitals across the country.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 12 (S25E12)

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The race to build the world's first supersonic passenger airliner led to a massive espionage effort during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the west. The Soviets started years behind the Concorde team, but espionage enabled Konkordski to beat Concorde into the air by three months. Now, NOVA reveals the cause behind the fatal Konkordski disaster at the 1973 Paris Air Show, which put the Soviet's work on the plane in a deep freeze. In a twist of fate, Konkordski is being resurrected in a NASA initiative to build the second generation of supersonic jets.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 11 (S25E11)

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Perfectly preserved 3000-year-old mummies have been unearthed in a remote Chinese desert. They have long, blonde hair and blue eyes, and don't appear to be the ancestors of the modern-day Chinese people. Who are these people and how did they end up in China's Takla Makan desert? NOVA takes a glimpse through a crack in the door of history, to a past that has never before been seen outside of China.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 10 (S25E10)

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Beneath the grassland plains of the Kalahari lies a hidden world of rare and exotic animals. By day, the Kalahari belongs to familiar predators and grazing animals. At night, the earth seems to release scores of seldom seen nocturnal creatures—Bush Babies, Brown Hyenas, Aardvarks and Fungal Termites—in search of food.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 9 (S25E09)

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NOVA covers the latest efforts to be first to circumnavigate the planet non-stop in a balloon. NOVA's cameras are on board for all three attempts, including that of the long-shot underdog, American Steve Fossett, who rode high-speed winds solo from Missouri to a remote corner of India against incredible odds.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 8 (S25E08)

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Viewers see what it's like to be overwhelmed by a sudden onslaught of "white death"—an avalanche. Avalanches are an escalating peril as skiers and snowmobilers push the limits into the back country. NOVA witnesses scientists getting buried alive in their attempts to understand these forces of nature.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 7 (S25E07)

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The Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, guided sailors in the Mediterranean Sea for 16 centuries. NOVA follows an international team of archeologists, cartographers, topographers, and divers as they catalog and map thousands of previously inaccessible ancient artifacts.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 6 (S25E06)

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Viewers are sidewalk supervisors for one of the most unusual construction projects in the U.S. - the building of the stunningly beautiful and eminently practical Clark Bridge over the Mississippi River. Contractors faced every obstacle in the book—and then some—to build this complex structure.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 5 (S25E05)

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Sir David Attenborough hosts a never-before-seen look at one of the most misunderstood creatures in nature. Special photography, including infrared photography, exposes the secret life of the wolf pack.

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In a tale of secrecy, obsession, dashed hopes, and brilliant insights, Princeton math sleuth Andrew Wiles goes undercover for eight years to solve history's most famous math problem: Fermat's Last Theorem. His success was front-page news around the world. But then disaster struck.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 3 (S25E03)

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IRA terrorists and British bomb disposal experts tell behind-the-scenes stories of a a deadly cat-and- mouse game that pits ingenious IRA explosives officers against the most creative bomb squad in the world.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 2 (S25E02)

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On the 50th anniversary of the first supersonic flight, Chuck Yeager relives his gutsy assault on the sound barrier and tells how it was done. Other top test pilots of the day—those who survived—describe the dangers, mysteries, and thrill of trying to fly faster than sound at the dawn of the jet age.

Watch NOVA season 25 episode 1 (S25E01)

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A famous brain surgeon struggles to save the life of a comatose child using a controversial new method of treating severe head injuries. In charge is Dr. Jan Ghajar, who gained notoriety in 1996 by successfully treating a woman who was savagely beaten in Manhattan's Central Park and expected to die. Dr. Ghajar believes the measure that helped save her life should be available to all.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 21 (S24E21)

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The world's leading sea horse biologist journeys to Australia and the Philippines to explore the secret lives of these extraordinary fish.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 20 (S24E20)

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Ever since World War II, physicians have struggled to find ways to treat heart failure, the biggest killer in the modern world.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 19 (S24E19)

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How do paleontologists and commercial fossil hunters know where to look for rare and priceless dinosaur bones?

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 18 (S24E18)

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Astronomers discover planets beyond our solar system. But is there life on them?

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 17 (S24E17)

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Citizens of Rome came to the Colosseum to behold free entertainment that usually came in the form of violent war games and bloody battles between humans and animals. This structure's most impressive feature was a massive canopy that provided shade from the hot sun. In order to investigate the possible forms the roof may have taken, NOVA's team constructs models at a smaller arena in Spain.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 16 (S24E16)

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Pharaohs who built magnificent temples to preserve their names for eternity often graced temple gates with pairs of obelisks, four-sided shafts of granite that taper gently upward until the sides meet at the top to form a pyramid shape. NOVA's team of experts attempts to build, transport, and raise a scale model obelisk using those materials available to ancient Egyptian engineers: rope, dirt, sticks, and stones.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 15 (S24E15)

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Even without such technological advances as wheels, arches, draft animals, iron tools, or a system of writing, the Inca—utilizing a tradition of shared labor—achieved a number of engineering feats. The NOVA team explores both stonework and bridge building, experimenting with dragging and fitting huge stones, and working with the people of an Andean village to create a suspension bridge made only of grass ropes.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 14 (S24E14)

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A distinctive feature of this stone site are the trilithons, which consist of two upright stones topped by a horizontal lintel stone. In this program, the NOVA team considers how to transport and raise the massive stones, as well as how to place the lintel stone on top. By comparing different strategies and adapting ramps, levers, and other tools that might have been available to the ancient builders, the team works to meet the challenge.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 13 (S24E13)

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In a 90-minuite presentation, NOVA reveals the ancient secrets of how the pyramids were built by actually building one. A noted Egyptologist, Mark Lehner, and a professional stonemason, Roger Hopkins, join forces in the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Giza to put clever and sometimes bizarre pyramid construction theories to the test.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 12 (S24E12)

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In a 90-minuite presentation, NOVA reveals the ancient secrets of how the pyramids were built by actually building one. A noted Egyptologist, Mark Lehner, and a professional stonemason, Roger Hopkins, join forces in the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Giza to put clever and sometimes bizarre pyramid construction theories to the test.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 11 (S24E11)

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An in-depth and heart stopping look at the ultimate chemical reaction - the explosion. Using high speed photography and dramatic reconstruction, the film will chart the tarnished history of explosives: the terrible accidents, the scientific ingenuity and ultimately, the carnage of war and terrorism.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 10 (S24E10)

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Did the crash of continents that produced the Himalayan Mountains also trigger the Ice Age?

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 9 (S24E09)

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Watch NOVA season 24 episode 8 (S24E08)

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This program reveals some of the billions of practically invisible organisms that live on, in, and around us.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 7 (S24E07)

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NOVA explores the links between our individual development and the evolution of life itself.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 6 (S24E06)

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Sharks are known as the "perfect predators," but sometimes they slip up and attack the wrong prey—people.

Watch NOVA season 24 episode 5 (S24E05)

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Flights in Russia's powerful fighter jets are for sale to foreign travelers. So is the Russian Air Force still in the game?